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Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes
Demonstration that the snakes, iguanians and anguimorphs form a single clade provides overwhelming support for a single, early origin of the venom system in lizards and snakes.
On the affinities of the burrowing asps Atractaspis (Serpentes: Atractaspididae)
An analysis of a sample of Atractaspididae plus Macrelaps, Aparallactus, Apostolepis, Elapomorphus, Homoroselaps and six genera of African elapids suggests that early in the history of the caenophidian lineage a venom apparatus was acquired, prior to the major radiation of the group.
Sarafotoxin, a novel vasoconstrictor peptide: phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat heart and brain.
Sarafotoxins, a group of 21-residue cardiotoxic peptides from snake venom that induce coronary vasoconstriction, show high-affinity binding to rat atrial and brain membranes and activate the
The origin of snakes and evolution of the venom apparatus.
  • E. Kochva
  • Biology, Medicine
    Toxicon : official journal of the International…
  • 1987
Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs
A new model is put forward for the evolution of snake fangs: a posterior subregion of the tooth-forming epithelium became developmentally uncoupled from the remaining dentition, which allowed the posterior teeth to evolve independently and in close association with the venom gland, becoming highly modified in different lineages.
Evolution and diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system.
This review examines the historical and modern-day efforts of all aspects of the venom system including dentition, glands and secreted toxins to highlight areas of future research opportunities and illustrate the diversity within this integrated weapons system.
How the mongoose can fight the snake: the binding site of the mongoose acetylcholine receptor.
Sequence comparison between species suggests that substitutions at positions 187, 189, and 194 are important in determining the resistance of mongoose and snake AcChoR to alpha-BTX.
The binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in animal species resistant to alpha-bungarotoxin.
The correlation between alpha-BTX binding and the structure of the binding site domain of AChR from the hedgehog, shrew, cat, and human is examined.
Functional and Structural Diversification of the Anguimorpha Lizard Venom System*
The results obtained highlight the importance of utilizing evolution-based search strategies for biodiscovery and emphasize the largely untapped drug design and development potential of lizard venoms.
A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus
  • B. Fry, S. Wroe, +25 authors J. Norman
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2 June 2009
It is demonstrated that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction, and the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads.