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Functional Architecture of Olfactory Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors
VIDEO ABSTRACT Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate chemical communication between neurons at synapses. A variant iGluR subfamily, the IonotropicExpand
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Neurexin mediates the assembly of presynaptic terminals
Neurexins are a large family of proteins that act as neuronal cell-surface receptors. The function and localization of the various neurexins, however, have not yet been clarified. Beta-neurexins areExpand
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Transmembrane Movement of the Shaker K+ Channel S4
We have probed internal and external accessibility of S4 residues to the membrane-impermeant thiol reagent methanethiosulfonate-ethyltrimethlammonium (MTSET) in both open and closed,Expand
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Watching a Synapse Grow Noninvasive Confocal Imaging of Synaptic Growth in Drosophila
The glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila adds new boutons and branches during larval development. We generated transgenic fruit flies that express a novel green fluorescentExpand
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Subunit counting in membrane-bound proteins
The subunit number and stoichiometry of membrane-bound proteins are difficult to determine without disrupting their membrane environment. Here we describe a single-molecule technique for countingExpand
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Direct Physical Measure of Conformational Rearrangement Underlying Potassium Channel Gating
In response to membrane depolarization, voltage-gated ion channels undergo a structural rearrangement that moves charges or dipoles in the membrane electric field and opens the channel-conductingExpand
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Functional Identification of a Goldfish Odorant Receptor
The vertebrate olfactory system utilizes odorant receptors to receive and discriminate thousands of different chemical stimuli. An understanding of how these receptors encode information about anExpand
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Analysis of a RanGTP-regulated gradient in mitotic somatic cells
The RanGTPase cycle provides directionality to nucleocytoplasmic transport, regulating interactions between cargoes and nuclear transport receptors of the importin-β family. The Ran–importin-β systemExpand
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Voltage-Sensing Arginines in a Potassium Channel Permeate and Occlude Cation-Selective Pores
Voltage-gated ion channels sense voltage by shuttling arginine residues located in the S4 segment across the membrane electric field. The molecular pathway for this arginine permeation is notExpand
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Optogenetic dissection of a behavioral module in the vertebrate spinal cord
Locomotion relies on neural networks called central pattern generators (CPGs) that generate periodic motor commands for rhythmic movements. In vertebrates, the excitatory synaptic drive for inducingExpand
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