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Infiltration of CD4+ lymphocytes into the brain contributes to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson disease.
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of dopamine-containing neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that dopaminergic cell death is influenced by the innateExpand
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The substantia nigra of the human brain. II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease.
To achieve accuracy in studying the patterns of loss of midbrain dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide theExpand
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Melanized dopaminergic neurons are differentially susceptible to degeneration in Parkinson's disease
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease massive cell death occurs in the dopamine-containing substantia nigra1,24. A link between the vulnerability of nigral neurons and the prominent pigmentation of theExpand
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Cholinergic mesencephalic neurons are involved in gait and postural disorders in Parkinson disease.
Gait disorders and postural instability, which are commonly observed in elderly patients with Parkinson disease (PD), respond poorly to dopaminergic agents used to treat other parkinsonian symptoms.Expand
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The substantia nigra of the human brain
Parkinson's disease is characterized by massive degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in the midbrain. However, the vulnerability of these neurons is heterogeneous both across differentExpand
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Apoptosis and autophagy in nigral neurons of patients with Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidativeExpand
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Protective action of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
We examined the effect of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist of the thiazolidinedione class, on dopaminergic nerve cell death and glial activation inExpand
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Immunocytochemical analysis of tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in Parkinson's disease
Activated glial cells observed in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease may participate in the mechanism of nerve cell death by providing toxic substances such as cytokines. Among theseExpand
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Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy.
In the brains of humans and other mammals, there are two principal groups of cholinergic nuclei aside from those forming the cranial motor nuclei. One group lies in the forebrain and includes theExpand
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Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) contributes to neurodegeneration in animal models of Parkinson's disease
Dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra (SN) is central to Parkinson's disease (PD), but the neurodegenerative mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. Iron accumulation inExpand
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