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Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
TLDR
A mathematical model of random viral evolution and phylogenetic tree construction is developed and used to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection, suggesting a finite window of potential vulnerability of HIV- 1 to vaccine-elicited immune responses, although phenotypic properties of transmitted Envs pose a formidable defense.
Upregulation of PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD8+ T cells leads to reversible immune dysfunction
TLDR
Blocking PD-1 engagement to its ligand (PD-L1) enhanced the capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to survive and proliferate and led to an increased production of cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in response to cognate antigen.
Genetic relationships determined by a DNA heteroduplex mobility assay: analysis of HIV-1 env genes.
TLDR
Heteroduplex mobility analysis provides a tool to expedite epidemiological investigations by assisting in the classification of HIV and is readily applicable to the screening and characterization of other infectious agents and cellular genes.
Human Bocaviruses Are Highly Diverse, Dispersed, Recombination Prone, and Prevalent in Enteric Infections
TLDR
The high degree of genetic diversity seen among the human bocaviruses found in feces specimens, relative to the highly homogeneous HBoV1, suggest that this worldwide-distributed respiratory pathogen may have recently evolved from an enteric bocvirus after acquiring an expanded tropism favoring the respiratory tract.
Multiple Diverse Circoviruses Infect Farm Animals and Are Commonly Found in Human and Chimpanzee Feces
TLDR
It is shown that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, including humans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission.
Bat Guano Virome: Predominance of Dietary Viruses from Insects and Plants plus Novel Mammalian Viruses
TLDR
This initial characterization of the bat guano virome, the first metagenomic analysis of viruses in wild mammals using second-generation sequencing, showed the presence of previously unidentified viral species, genera, and possibly families.
Detection of a novel circovirus PCV3 in pigs with cardiac and multi-systemic inflammation
TLDR
The pathogenicity and molecular epidemiology of this new circovirus, alone or in the context of co-infections, warrants further investigations.
A newly identified bocavirus species in human stool.
TLDR
Nearly-full-length genome sequencing revealed the presence of 3 HBoV2 genotypes and evidence of recombination between genotypes, and further studies are necessary to identify anatomical sites of H BoV2 replication and potential associations with clinical symptoms or disease.
The Fecal Virome of Pigs on a High-Density Farm
TLDR
An unbiased survey of viruses in the feces of intensely farmed animals revealed frequent coinfections with a highly diverse set of viruses providing favorable conditions for viral recombination.
Viral Nucleic Acids in Live-Attenuated Vaccines: Detection of Minority Variants and an Adventitious Virus
TLDR
Deep sequencing and microarrays can detect attenuated virus sequence changes, minority variants, and adventitious viruses and help maintain the current safety record of live-attenuated viral vaccines.
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