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Methotrexate—how does it really work?
Methotrexate remains a cornerstone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Folate antagonism is known to contribute to the antiproliferative effects that are importantExpand
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Adenosine A2A receptors play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis
1 Adenosine is a potent endogenous regulator of inflammation and tissue repair. Adenosine, which is released from injured and hypoxic tissue or in response to toxins and medications, may induceExpand
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Molecular action of methotrexate in inflammatory diseases
Despite the recent introduction of biological response modifiers and potent new small-molecule antirheumatic drugs, the efficacy of methotrexate is nearly unsurpassed in the treatment of inflammatoryExpand
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Adenosine A2A Receptor Occupancy Stimulates Collagen Expression by Hepatic Stellate Cells via Pathways Involving Protein Kinase A, Src, and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2 Signaling
Prior studies indicate that adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor play a role in hepatic fibrosis by a mechanism that has been proposed to involve direct stimulation of hepatic stellate cellsExpand
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Interferon-gamma impedes reverse cholesterol transport and promotes foam cell transformation in THP-1 human monocytes/macrophages.
BACKGROUND Cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, an enzyme expressed at high levels by human monocytes/macrophages, provides a first line of defense against the development of atherosclerosis. Prior studiesExpand
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Cyclooxygenase-2-Derived E Prostaglandins Down-Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes via Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation 1
We examined the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production by mitogen-activated protein kinases and cyclooxygenases (COXs) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSCs). IL-1β and TNF-αExpand
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Ecto‐5′‐nucleotidase (CD73) ‐mediated extracellular adenosine production plays a critical role in hepatic fibrosis
Adenosine is a potent endogenous regulator of tissue repair that is released from injured cells and tissues. Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic hepatic injury, and we have previously reported thatExpand
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Mechanisms of action of methotrexate.
As one of the most utilized disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, methotrexate (MTX) has revolutionized the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as well as many other non-rheumatic chronicExpand
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Open Access
Adenosine A2A receptor occupancy stimulates expression of proteins involved in reverse cholesterol transport and inhibits foam cell formation in macrophages
Transport of cholesterol out of macrophages is critical for prevention of foam cell formation, the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Proteins involved in this process includeExpand
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Cholesterol in neurologic disorders of the elderly: stroke and Alzheimer’s disease
Mechanisms for the regulation of intracellular cholesterol levels in various types of brain and vascular cells are of considerable importance in our understanding of the pathogenesis of a variety ofExpand
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