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How Placebos Change the Patient's Brain
Data indicate that different social stimuli, such as words and rituals of the therapeutic act, may change the chemistry and circuitry of the patient's brain, which suggests a cognitive/affective interference with drug action.
The top‐down influence of ergogenic placebos on muscle work and fatigue
A central mechanism of top‐down modulation of muscle fatigue is suggested in the context of the role of peripheral and/or central mechanisms in muscle performance, which is responsible for the extension of the leg relative to the thigh.
Clinical relevance of contextual factors as triggers of placebo and nocebo effects in musculoskeletal pain
From a clinical perspective, the mindful manipulation of CFs represents a useful opportunity to enrich a well-established therapy in therapeutic setting within the ethical border and to underline the uncertainty of therapy action and help clinicians to implement knowledge in daily practice.
Placebo mechanisms across different conditions: from the clinical setting to physical performance
- A. Pollo, E. Carlino, F. Benedetti
- PsychologyPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
- 27 June 2011
Examples will be given where physiological or pathological conditions are altered following the administration of an inert substance or verbal instructions tailored to induce expectation of a change, and explanations will be offered with details on neurotransmitter changes and neural pathways activated.
Teaching neurons to respond to placebos
Findings show that learning plays a crucial role in the placebo response and suggest that placebo non‐responders can be turned into placebo responders, with important clinical implications.
Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions
- A. Pollo, E. Carlino, L. Vase, F. Benedetti
- PsychologyEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
- 13 March 2012
It is found that it is possible to negatively modulate the physical performance in both cases, and it is argued that this effect can effectively offset the outcome of training programs.
The effects of placebos and nocebos on physical performance.
Recent studies are presented, showing how expectations and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological preconditioning procedures can be very effective in inducing placebo responses, with important implications for sport competitions.
Context matters: the psychoneurobiological determinants of placebo, nocebo and context-related effects in physiotherapy
- G. Rossettini, E. Camerone, E. Carlino, F. Benedetti, M. Testa
- Medicine, PsychologyArchives of Physiotherapy
- 11 June 2020
Several psychological mechanisms are involved in placebo, nocebo and context-related effects; including expectation, learning processes, reinforced expectations, mindset and personality traits, which offers the scientific community the chance to better measure the impact of physiotherapy on different outcomes and in different conditions through primary studies.