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Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations
TLDR
Two channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, are described, discovered through sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of alga, that enable two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations without detectable cross-talk in mouse brain slice. Expand
Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algalExpand
A toolbox of Cre-dependent optogenetic transgenic mice for light-induced activation and silencing
TLDR
The robust, consistent and inducible nature of the ChR2 mice represents a significant advance over previous lines, and the Arch-ER2 and eNpHR3.0 mice are to the authors' knowledge the first demonstration of successful conditional transgenic optogenetic silencing. Expand
High-Performance Genetically Targetable Optical Neural Silencing via Light-Driven Proton Pumps
TLDR
Light-driven proton pumps represent a high-performance and extremely versatile class of ‘optogenetic’ voltage and ion modulator, which will broadly enable new neuroscientific, biological, neurological and psychiatric investigations. Expand
Transgenic Mice for Intersectional Targeting of Neural Sensors and Effectors with High Specificity and Performance
TLDR
These novel transgenic lines greatly expand the ability to monitor and manipulate neuronal activities with increased specificity, and develop driver and double reporter mouse lines and viral vectors using the Cre/Flp and Cre/Dre double recombinase systems. Expand
A High-Light Sensitivity Optical Neural Silencer: Development and Application to Optogenetic Control of Non-Human Primate Cortex
TLDR
The powerful net suppression of activity suggests that ArchT silencing technology might be of great use not only in the causal analysis of neural circuits, but may have therapeutic applications. Expand
Millisecond-Timescale Optical Control of Neural Dynamics in the Nonhuman Primate Brain
TLDR
Lentivirus was used to target the light-activated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) specifically to excitatory neurons of the macaque frontal cortex, and it was shown that activation of excited neurons resulted in well-timedexcitatory and suppressive influences on neocortical neural networks. Expand
Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids
TLDR
It is found that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina, which may offer a way to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli. Expand
Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin
TLDR
The red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light–induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers is presented, offering a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied neuroscience. Expand
Cerebellum-dependent learning: the role of multiple plasticity mechanisms.
TLDR
Studies of the patterns of generalization of motor learning in the VOR provide insight about the coding of information in neurons at sites of plasticity, and may reflect general principles of cerebellar function. Expand
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