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Immune function of astrocytes
The functional role of astrocytes as immune effector cells and how this may influence aspects of inflammation and immune reactivity within the brain follows, emphasizing the involvement of astracytes in promoting Th2 responses.
Role of macrophages/microglia in multiple sclerosis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
- E. Benveniste
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Molecular Medicine
- 1 March 1997
This review focuses on the role of the microglia in multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and in the animal model of MS, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE).
The Transcription Factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 Are Required for Constitutive Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene Expression in Astroglioma Cells*
Findings document the functional importance of Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 in regulating constitutive expression of MMP-2 and may have implications for development of new therapeutic strategies to arrest glioma invasion.
Adhesion molecule expression and regulation on cells of the central nervous system
Inflammatory cytokines within the central nervous system: sources, function, and mechanism of action.
- E. Benveniste
- BiologyThe American journal of physiology
- 1 July 1992
The mechanisms by which glial cells both respond to and synthesize a variety of cytokines within the CNS and the capacity ofglial cells to acquire major histocompatibility complex antigens and function as antigen-presenting cells within the central nervous system are described in detail.
SOCS1 and SOCS3 in the control of CNS immunity.
Fas ligand/Fas system in the brain: regulator of immune and apoptotic responses
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by astrocytes. Induction by lipopolysaccharide, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 beta.
It is proposed that astrocyte-produced TNF-alpha may have a pivotal role in augmenting intracerebral immune responses and inflammatory demyelination due to its diverse functional effects on glial cells such as oligodendrocytes and astroCytes themselves.
Cytokines in inflammatory brain lesions: helpful and harmful
Cytokine regulation of CC and CXC chemokine expression by human astrocytes.
The findings presented herein demonstrate that both human astroglioma cell lines and primary human astrocytes express the CXC chemokines IP-10 and IL-8 and the CC chemokine MCP-1 and RANTES in response to TNF-alpha andIL-1beta.