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Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algalExpand
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Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel
Microbial-type rhodopsins are found in archaea, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Some of them represent membrane ion transport proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, orExpand
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Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry
Our understanding of the cellular implementation of systems-level neural processes like action, thought and emotion has been limited by the availability of tools to interrogate specific classes ofExpand
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Light Activation of Channelrhodopsin-2 in Excitable Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Triggers Rapid Behavioral Responses
For studying the function of specific neurons in their native circuitry, it is desired to precisely control their activity. This often requires dissection to allow accurate electrical stimulation orExpand
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Ultra light-sensitive and fast neuronal activation with the Ca2+-permeable channelrhodopsin CatCh
The light-gated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has rapidly become an important tool in neuroscience, and its use is being considered in therapeutic interventions. Although wild-type andExpand
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Phloem-localized, Proton-coupled Sucrose Carrier ZmSUT1 Mediates Sucrose Efflux under the Control of the Sucrose Gradient and the Proton Motive Force*
The phloem network is as essential for plants as the vascular system is for humans. This network, assembled by nucleus- and vacuole-free interconnected living cells, represents a long distanceExpand
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Proteorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump with variable vectoriality.
Proteorhodopsin, a homologue of archaeal bacteriorhodopsin (BR), belongs to a newly identified family of retinal proteins from marine bacteria, which could play an important role in the energyExpand
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Spectral characteristics of the photocycle of channelrhodopsin-2 and its implication for channel function.
In 2003, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was discovered to be a light-gated cation channel, and since that time the channel became an excellent tool to control by lightExpand
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Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1.
The rat organic cation transporter (rOCT)-2 was characterized by electrical and tracer flux measurements compared with rOCT1. By applying choline gradients to voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytesExpand
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Transient protonation changes in channelrhodopsin-2 and their relevance to channel gating
Significance It was always a dream to control cells and living animals by light. Discovery of channelrhodopsin turned the dream into reality because this light-activated cation channel is able toExpand
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