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From micro to nano contacts in biological attachment devices
TLDR
An extensive microscopic study has shown a strong inverse scaling effect in these attachment devices, whereas μm dimensions of the terminal elements of the setae are sufficient for flies and beetles, geckos must resort to sub-μm devices to ensure adhesion.
Materials become insensitive to flaws at nanoscale: Lessons from nature
TLDR
It is shown that the nanocomposites in nature exhibit a generic mechanical structure in which the nanometer size of mineral particles is selected to ensure optimum strength and maximum tolerance of flaws (robustness) and the widely used engineering concept of stress concentration at flaws is no longer valid for nanomaterial design.
Evidence for capillarity contributions to gecko adhesion from single spatula nanomechanical measurements.
TLDR
Measurements of the adhesion force exerted by a single gecko spatula for various atmospheric conditions and surface chemistries show that humidity contributes significantly to gecko adhesion on a nanoscopic level, crucial for the development of artificial biomimetic attachment systems.
Resolving the nanoscale adhesion of individual gecko spatulae by atomic force microscopy
TLDR
The first successful experiments in which the force–displacement curves were determined for individual spatulae by atomic force microscopy are reported, which sheds new light on the nanomechanisms of attachment and will help in the rational design of artificial attachment systems.
Adhesion of bioinspired micropatterned surfaces: effects of pillar radius, aspect ratio, and preload.
TLDR
A preload dependence of the adhesion force has been identified and demonstrated to be crucial for obtaining adhesives with tunable adherence.
Effects of contact shape on the scaling of biological attachments
TLDR
It is concluded that other shapes, such as a toroidal contact geometry, should lead to better attachment; such geometries are observed in the microscopic investigations of hair–tip shapes in beetles and flies.
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