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PERIOD proteins are central components of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian clocks. The crystal structure of a Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) fragment comprising two PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B) and two additional C-terminal alpha-helices (alphaE and alphaF) has revealed a homodimer mediated by intermolecular interactions of PAS-A with(More)
Period (PER) proteins are essential components of the mammalian circadian clock. They form complexes with cryptochromes (CRY), which negatively regulate CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent transactivation of clock and clock-controlled genes. To define the roles of mammalian CRY/PER complexes in the circadian clock, we have determined the crystal structure of a complex(More)
The X-ray structure of a canonical GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), Serratia marcescens aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase, bound to coenzyme A (CoA) has been determined at 2.3 A resolution. The single domain alpha/beta protein resembles a cupped right hand wrapped around a cylinder and consists of a highly curved, six-stranded beta sheet of mixed(More)
Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However,(More)
Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a FAD-dependent circadian photoreceptor, whereas mammalian cryptochromes (CRY1/2) are integral clock components that repress mCLOCK/mBMAL1-dependent transcription. We report crystal structures of full-length dCRY, a dCRY loop deletion construct, and the photolyase homology region of mouse CRY1 (mCRY1). Our dCRY structures(More)
Circadian clocks in eukaryotes rely on transcriptional feedback loops, in which clock genes repress their own transcription resulting in molecular oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h. In Drosophila, the clock proteins Period (PER) and Timeless (TIM) operate in such a feedback loop, whereby they first accumulate in the cytoplasm of clock cells(More)
BACKGROUND The interferon-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins/p47 GTPases) are a distinctive family of GTPases that function as powerful cell-autonomous resistance factors. The IRG protein, Irga6 (IIGP1), participates in the disruption of the vacuolar membrane surrounding the intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, through which it(More)
The Brassicaceae include several major crop plants and numerous important model species in comparative evolutionary research such as Arabidopsis, Brassica, Boechera, Thellungiella, and Arabis species. As any evolutionary hypothesis needs to be placed in a temporal context, reliably dated major splits within the evolution of Brassicaceae are essential. We(More)
Most internationally travelled researchers will have encountered jetlag. If not, working odd hours makes most of us feel somehow dysfunctional. How can all this be linked to circadian rhythms and circadian clocks? In this review, we define circadian clocks, their composition and underlying molecular mechanisms. We describe and discuss recent crystal(More)