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[1] For the period 1996–2006, global distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have been derived from radiances measured with the satellite instruments GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). A statistical analysis is applied to derive trends and seasonal(More)
Supramolecular polymers can be random and entangled coils with the mechanical properties of plastics and elastomers, but with great capacity for processability, recycling, and self-healing due to their reversible monomer-to-polymer transitions. At the other extreme, supramolecular polymers can be formed by self-assembly among designed subunits to yield(More)
Units of 2-ureido-4-pyrimidone that dimerize strongly in a self-complementary array of four cooperative hydrogen bonds were used as the associating end group in reversible self-assembling polymer systems. The unidirectional design of the binding sites prevents uncontrolled multidirectional association or gelation. Linear polymers and reversible networks(More)
Supramolecular fibers are prominent structures in biology and chemistry. A quantitative understanding of molecular exchange pathways in these one-dimensional aggregates was obtained by a combination of super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and stochastic simulation. The potential of this methodology is demonstrated with a set of(More)
Dendrimers are well-defined, highly branched macromolecules that emanate from a central core and are synthesized through a stepwise, repetitive reaction sequence. The synthesis and characterization of dendritic boxes, based on the construction of a chiral shell of protected amino acids onto poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers with 64 amine end groups, is(More)
The precursor formamide 1 was employed instead of the monomer 2 because isocyanides are relatively unstable in air at room temperature. [19] a) [20] Molecular modeling shows that (in common with the phenyl benzo-ate compounds previously described [17]) an angle exists between the planar phenoxy and TTF ring systems. [21] The oxidation of the polymer was(More)
Hierarchical self-assembly offers a powerful strategy for producing molecular nanostructures. Although widely used, the mechanistic details of self-assembly processes are poorly understood. We spectroscopically monitored a nucleation process in the self-assembly of p-conjugated molecules into helical supramolecular fibrillar structures. The data support a(More)
The double helix of DNA epitomizes this molecule's ability to self-assemble in aqueous solutions into a complex chiral structure using hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Non-covalently interacting molecules in organic solvents are used to design systems that similarly form controlled architectures. Peripheral chiral centres in assemblies and(More)