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Daily traffic congestions form major problems for businesses such as logistical service providers and distribution firms. They cause late arrivals at customers and additional hiring costs for the truck drivers. The additional costs of traffic congestions can be reduced by taking into account and avoid well-predictable traffic congestions within off-line(More)
Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW solutions do not account for complex driving hours(More)
For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport costs. To account for traffic congestion, time-dependent(More)
Watermarking is the process of hiding a message about an image, audio, video or other work of media within the work itself. Although such practices have existed for quite a long time but the field of digital watermarking became a popular research topic in the latter half of 1990s. This paper gives a review of various digital watermarking techniques for(More)
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