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Food abundance and distribution have played a central role in the conceptual theory of primate socioecology [Janson, Behaviour 105:53-76, 1988; Isbell, Behavioral Ecology 2:143-155, 1991; Sterck et al., Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41:291-309, 1997; van Schaik, In: Standen V, Foley RA, editors, Comparative Socioecology. Oxford: Blackwell. p 195-218,(More)
BACKGROUND Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can(More)
Researchers have identified a variety of cross-site differences in the foraging behavior of free-ranging great apes, most notably among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and more recently orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), that are not due to obvious genetic or ecological differences. These differences are often referred to as "traditions." What is not known is(More)
BACKGROUND The ecological factors contributing to the evolution of tropical vertebrate communities are still poorly understood. Primate communities of the tropical Americas have fewer folivorous but more frugivorous genera than tropical regions of the Old World and especially many more frugivorous genera than Madagascar. Reasons for this phenomenon are(More)
This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We(More)
Protein is a limiting resource that is essential to the growth, maintenance and reproduction of tropical frugivores, yet few studies have examined how wild animals maintain protein balance. During chronic periods of fruit scarcity, Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) often catabolize their own fat reserves despite unusually low metabolic requirements. Such(More)
The mechanical properties of plant foods play an important role in the feeding process, being one of many criteria for food acceptance or rejection by primates. One of the simplest justifications for this statement is the general finding that primates tend to avoid foods with high fiber. Although fiber is largely tasteless, odorless, and colorless, it(More)
The vital role of body protein as an energy reserve has received little focus in studies of wild primates. Owing to the relatively low protein content of fruit, some frugivorous primates could face a protein deficit if body protein is catabolized for energy during periods of low fruit availability. Such an imbalance can be detected if fatty acids, amino(More)
Bottom-up regulatory factors have been proposed to exert a strong influence on mammalian population density. Studies relating habitat quality to population density have typically made comparisons among distant species or communities without considering variation in food quality among localities. We compared dietary nutritional quality of two Bornean(More)
In this work we report the first published observational evidence of rescue behavior during an intergroup interaction in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). The study groups (groups AA and RR) inhabit the forest of Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, and have been under investigation since 1990 and 1997, respectively.(More)