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Twenty independent, petal-specific chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNA clones have been isolated from Petunia hybrida variety Violet 30 (V30). Sequence analysis shows that the largest of these clones contains the entire coding sequence. Using this clone in Southern blot analysis reveals the presence of multiple CHS gene copies in the genome of Petunia hybrida V30.(More)
The nucleotide sequence from about 100 base-pairs downstream to about 600 base pairs upstream the CloDF13 replication origin has been determined. A comparison of this sequence with the corresponding ColE1 origin sequence reveals that: The sequence at the origin of replication is conserved. There are large differences in the nucleotide sequence downstream(More)
The isolation and characterization of deletion mutants of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13 is described. To construct these deletion mutants, DNA of Clo DF13::Tn901 and Clo DF13-rep3::Tn901 plasmids was digested with restriction endonucleases, ligated with T4 ligase and introduced by transformation into Escherichia coli. The presence of the(More)
Induction of cloacin DF13 synthesis in Escherichia coli harbouring plasmid CloDF13 results in the release of cloacin DF13, inhibition of growth and ultimately in lysis of the host cells. Expression of the pCloDF13-encoded protein H is essential for both the release of cloacin DF13 and the lysis of the cells. The divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ interfered(More)
The gene expression of the Clo DF13 “replication region”, located between 1.8% and 12% on the plasmid genome, was studied using newly constructed Clo DF13 insertion and deletion mutants. We were able to detect a Clo DF13 specified protein of 6 kilodaltons (kd) by electrophoretic analysis of plasmid proteins, synthesized in Escherichia coli minicells, on(More)
Treatment of cells, harbouring the bacteriocinogenic plasmic Clo DF13 with mitomycin-C, which induces the cellular SOS response, results in a significantly increased transcription of the operon encoding the bacteriocin cloacin DF13, the immunity protein and the lysis protein H. The nucleotide sequences of the promoter regions and N-terminal parts of the(More)
Clo DF13 plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used as a template to direct transcription and translation in a DNA-dependent cell-free system prepared from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the invitro products on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed that Clo DF13 DNA directs the synthesis of at least 10 polypeptides ranging in molecular weight(More)
The influence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein synthesis on the replication of the cloacinogenic factor Clo DF13 was studied in Escherichia coli cells and minicells. In chromosomeless minicells harboring the Clo DF13 factor, Clo DF13 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis is slightly stimulated after inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol or(More)
The replication of the bacteriocinogenic factor Clo DF13 was studied in Escherichia coli mutants which lack either DNA polymerase I (polA1 and resA1 mutants), DNA polymerase II (polB1 mutant) or DNA polymerase III (dnaE mutant). DNA polymerase I is required for Clo DF13 replication. The Clo DF13 factor, however, can be maintained in a strain carrying the(More)
Escherichia coli minicells harboring plasmid CloDF13 synthesized at least 25 messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) species; three of these RNAs, a 2,400-, a 2,200-, and a 100-nucleotide RNA, were synthesized in relatively large amounts. Using insertion and deletion mutants of CloDF13 as well as an RNA blotting technique, we could demonstrate that these three(More)