E Valdemar Holmgren

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The effect on the experimental tooth pain threshold of conditioning electrical stimulation via needles or surface electrodes applied to the hands and cheeks was studied in 34 dental students. Conditioning stimulation with 2/sec. gave a slowly increasing pain threshold followed by a slow return to the control level in the post-conditioning period. In each(More)
The pain suppressive effect of low (2/s) and high (50-100/s) frequency electrical stimulation was studied in 12 patients with severe chronic pain in the back and/or the legs. All patients were subjected to a thorough physical examination before and 2-3 weeks after a series of stimulation sessions. The stimulation was applied via surface electrodes to areas(More)
BACKGROUND Economic burden to households due to out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is large in many Asian countries. Though studies suggest increasing household poverty due to high OOPE in developing countries, studies on association of multidimensional poverty and household health spending is limited. This paper tests the hypothesis that the(More)
Previous studies have shown that 2 Hz electrical conditioning stimulation of hands and cheeks increased the tooth pain threshold. In the present study the relation between strength of conditioning stimulation and amplitude of pain threshold increase is elucidated. Intense conditioning stimulation, giving subjective beating sensations and extensive muscles(More)
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