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Neurons recruit numerous mechanisms to facilitate the development of synaptic connections. However, little is known about activity-dependent mechanisms that control the timing and fidelity of this process. Here we describe a novel pathway used by neurons to regulate glutamate receptors at maturing central synapses. This pathway relies on communication(More)
Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Only one moderately effective therapy exists, albeit with contraindications that exclude 90% of the patients. This medical need contrasts with a high failure rate of more than 1,000 pre-clinical drug candidates for stroke therapies. Thus, there is a need for translatable mechanisms of(More)
The genome of a canine parvovirus isolate strain (CPV-N) was cloned, and the DNA sequence was determined. The entire genome, including ends, was 5,323 nucleotides in length. The terminal repeat at the 3' end of the genome shared similar structural characteristics but limited homology with the rodent parvoviruses. The 5' terminal repeat was not detected in(More)
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are known to influence T cell responses to tumours. Here we have explored the role of Treg in inhibiting not only adaptive, but also innate immune responses to tumours. To this end we used a Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing melanoma cell line in a mouse model. In this system, innate immunity is sufficient to reject the(More)
Matricellular proteins are secreted, nonstructural proteins that regulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) and interactions between cells through modulation of growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Despite being well described in the context of nonneuronal tissues, recent studies have revealed that these molecules may also play(More)
Although it is known that the immune system can mount responses to a variety of tumors it is clear that most tumors exhibit weak or even undetectable immunogenicity. Recent findings suggest that the lack of tumor immunogenicity is partly due to a population of cells called CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells since depletion of these cells in mice can result in(More)
Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for CD25 (anti-CD25 mAb) has been shown to suppress growth of a variety of different tumours in mice. These studies did not however determine whether or not anti-CD25 mAbs facilitate tumour rejection by depletion of regulatory T cells or by binding to tumour-specific effector cells. Using a murine model(More)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection induces a protective CTL response consisting of gp- and nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CTL. We find that a small load of LCMV led to immunodominance of NP-CTL, whereas a large viral load resulted in dominance of gp-CTL. This is the first study describing that immunodominance is not fixed after infection with(More)
BACKGROUND Excitatory synapses in the CNS are highly dynamic structures that can show activity-dependent remodeling and stabilization in response to learning and memory. Synapses are enveloped with intricate processes of astrocytes known as perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs). PAPs are motile structures displaying rapid actin-dependent movements and(More)