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The existence of a posterolateral thalamic relay nucleus for pain and temperature sensation was postulated in 1911, on the basis of the stroke-induced analgesia and thermanaesthesia found paradoxically in patients with thalamic pain syndrome. Pain or temperature sensations can be evoked in humans by electrical stimulation in a vaguely defined region of the(More)
Previous studies in the macaque monkey have identified a thalamic nucleus, the posterior portion of the ventral medial nucleus (VMpo), as a dedicated lamina I spinothalamocortical relay for pain and temperature sensation. The dense plexus of calbindin-immunoreactive fibres that characterizes VMpo in primates enables its homologue to be identified in the(More)
Pain and temperature stimuli activate neurons of lamina I within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and although these neurons can be classified into three basic morphological types and three major physiological classes, earlier studies did not establish a structure/function correlation between their morphology and their physiological responses. We(More)
Pathways for drainage of interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the rat brain were investigated by the injection of 2-5 microliters Indian ink into cerebral white and grey matter and into the subarachnoid space over the vertex of the left frontal lobe. Animals were killed by formalin or glutaraldehyde perfusion 5 min-2 years after injection, and(More)
We examined the morphology and distribution of retrogradely labeled spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons in lamina I (the marginal zone) of the spinal dorsal horn after large injections of cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) or Fast Blue (FB) into the contralateral thalamus of cats. Based on the shape and orientation of the somata and proximal dendrites in(More)
Perivascular cells in the rat brain are an immunophenotypically defined group of cells which can be identified by their expression of the ED2 antigen. The present study investigates the role of perivascular cells as scavengers in the perivascular spaces of the rat brain and the relationship of these cells to microglia, macrophages, pericytes and smooth(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on the depolarization associated with severe hypoglycemia, which is commonly preceded by one or a few transient depolarizations reminiscent of cortical spreading depression (CSD). In the cerebral cortices of rats [K+]e and [Ca2+]e were measured(More)
The nonopioid actions of spinal dynorphin may promote aspects of abnormal pain after nerve injury. Mechanistic similarities have been suggested between opioid tolerance and neuropathic pain. Here, the hypothesis that spinal dynorphin might mediate effects of sustained spinal opioids was explored. Possible abnormal pain and spinal antinociceptive tolerance(More)
Lamina I spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons were identified by retrograde labeling with cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) in monkeys. On the basis of the criteria of somatal shape and dendritic orientation in horizontal sections used in prior work in the cat, three distinct morphological types were recognized: fusiform (F) cells with spindle-shaped somata and(More)