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Herein we describe a novel series of compounds from which varenicline (1, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine) has been identified for smoking cessation. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate the dependence-producing effects of nicotine. We have pursued alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists to(More)
DeltaFosB is a Fos family transcription factor that is induced by chronic exposure to cocaine and other drugs of abuse in the nucleus accumbens and related striatal regions, brain regions that are important for the behavioral effects of these drugs. To better understand the mechanisms by which DeltaFosB contributes to the effects of chronic drug treatment,(More)
We have investigated the possible involvement of the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin IIa in synapse development. Synapsin IIa was introduced into Xenopus embryonic spinal neurons by early blastomere injection, and nerve-muscle cultures were prepared. Synaptic currents were measured by comparing synapses in which the presynaptic neuron either contained(More)
Administration of cocaine induces the Fos family of transcription factors in the striatum, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region important for the rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Several Fos proteins are induced acutely by cocaine, with stable isoforms of DeltaFosB predominating after chronic drug administration. However, it has been(More)
Synapsins are neuron-specific phosphoproteins associated with small synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. Synapsin I, which has been demonstrated to bundle F-actin in vitro, has been postulated to regulate neurotransmitter release by cross-linking synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible interaction of synapsin(More)
The effect of nicotine on the major human neuronal nicotinic receptor (alpha 4 beta 2 subtype) was studied in permanently transfected HEK 293 cells. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations of nicotine (1 microM) increased epibatidine binding but functionally deactivated the nicotinic receptor, abolishing Ca2+ influx in response to an acute nicotine(More)
The synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins which play a key role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synapse formation. In the case of synapsin I, these biological properties have been attributed to its ability to interact with both synaptic vesicles and the actin-based cytoskeleton. Although synapsin II shares some of the(More)
The long lasting antidepressant response seen following acute, i.v. ketamine administration in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is thought to result from enhanced synaptic plasticity in cortical and hippocampal circuits. Using extracellular field recordings in rat hippocampal slices, we show that a single dose of the non-selective NMDA(More)
The type 1 glycine transporter plays an important in regulating homeostatic glycine levels in the brain that are relevant to the activation of the NMDA receptor by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. We describe herein the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a structurally novel class of GlyT1 inhibitors following on a lead derived from high(More)