E. Schäffer

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Herein we describe a novel series of compounds from which varenicline (1, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine) has been identified for smoking cessation. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate the dependence-producing effects of nicotine. We have pursued alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists to(More)
The preclinical pharmacology of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist varenicline, a novel smoking cessation agent is described. Varenicline binds with subnanomolar affinity only to alpha4beta2 nAChRs and in vitro functional patch clamp studies in HEK cells expressing nAChRs show that varenicline is a partial agonist with(More)
Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) is an essential component of the biological clock, phosphorylating PER proteins, and in doing so regulating their turnover and nuclear entry in oscillator cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although hereditary decreases in PER phosphorylation have been well characterized, little is known about the consequences of(More)
Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported(More)
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is a potential biomarker for the modulation of brain neurotransmitter activity, but is also present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have utilized hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) based assays to detect and quantify ALCAR within biofluids such as urine, plasma and(More)
The long lasting antidepressant response seen following acute, i.v. ketamine administration in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is thought to result from enhanced synaptic plasticity in cortical and hippocampal circuits. Using extracellular field recordings in rat hippocampal slices, we show that a single dose of the non-selective NMDA(More)
We show that daily stock price movements affect the mood, effort level, and decision making of employees at Google. Positive current‐day stock returns are accompanied by greater reported economic confidence and job satisfaction, shorter working hours, more optimistically biased beliefs about firm performance, tougher grading of innovative ideas, and tougher(More)
The type 1 glycine transporter plays an important in regulating homeostatic glycine levels in the brain that are relevant to the activation of the NMDA receptor by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. We describe herein the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a structurally novel class of GlyT1 inhibitors following on a lead derived from high(More)
The osseous areas of 126 canine mixed tumours of the mammary gland were studied by light microscopy. Seven cases were investigated in detail using the electronmicroscop. It is suggested, that these structures develop by enchondral ossification. There ist no indication that myoepithelial tumour cells play a role in formation of osteoid or osseous foci. The(More)