E. S. Roberts

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The neurodegenerative process in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with extensive damage to the dendritic and synaptic structure that often leads to cognitive impairment. Several mechanisms might be at play, including release of neurotoxins, oxidative stress and decreased activity of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, HIV-mediated dysregulation of genes(More)
The idea that CNS ramified microglia are quiescent has been challenged by studies that show that microglia without the classic signs of activation can be phagocytic and appear with shorter, thicker ramifications. These semi-activated cells may constitute a form of microglia that has not been previously recognized in neuropathological conditions and may(More)
The etiology of the central nervous system (CNS) alterations after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, such as dementia and encephalitis, remains unknown. We have used microarray analysis in a monkey model of neuroAIDS to identify 98 genes, many previously unrecognized in lentiviral CNS pathogenesis, whose expression is significantly up-regulated(More)
CNS abnormalities can be detected during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, before the development of opportunistic infections or other sequelae of immunodeficiency. However, although end-stage dementia caused by HIV has been linked to the presence of infected and activated macrophages and microglia in the brain, the nature of the changes(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the synergism of HIV and methamphetamine. DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a microarray study using RNA from the frontal cortex of 15 individuals with HIV infection to initially identify genes that are differentially regulated by HIV encephalitis (HIVE). From the analysis of the microarray data, we identified candidate genes to be(More)
The virus/host interactions during the acute phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection help determine the course of disease. During this time period, virus enters the brain. Here, we report clusters of genes whose transcripts are significantly upregulated in the frontal lobe of the brain during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection(More)
Global increases in consumption of chemical nutrients, application of pesticides, and water withdrawal to enhance agricultural yield have resulted in degraded water quality and reduced water availability. Efforts to safeguard or improve environmental conditions of agroecosystems have usually focused on managing on-farm activities to reduce materials loss(More)
† Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom ‡ Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King’s College London, New Hunts House, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom § London Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 35a South St, Mayfair, London W1K 2XF, United Kingdom ⋆ Department of Medical and Molecular(More)
Beginning in 1998, faculty from Stanford University’s Computer Science Department and the School of Education have participated in a collaborative effort to design, implement, and assess a new computer science curriculum in the Bermuda public schools. Since 2003, a complete curriculum consisting of three computer science courses supplemented by additional(More)
Specific neuronal spatial distributional patterns have previously been correlated with increasing severity of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). As astrocytes are also a putative site of neurotoxicity, we investigated the spatial relationships of astrocytes with pyramidal and interneurons in the superior frontal gyrus from 29 patients who died from acquired(More)