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The neurodegenerative process in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with extensive damage to the dendritic and synaptic structure that often leads to cognitive impairment. Several mechanisms might be at play, including release of neurotoxins, oxidative stress and decreased activity of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, HIV-mediated dysregulation of genes(More)
The idea that CNS ramified microglia are quiescent has been challenged by studies that show that microglia without the classic signs of activation can be phagocytic and appear with shorter, thicker ramifications. These semi-activated cells may constitute a form of microglia that has not been previously recognized in neuropathological conditions and may(More)
The virus/host interactions during the acute phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection help determine the course of disease. During this time period, virus enters the brain. Here, we report clusters of genes whose transcripts are significantly upregulated in the frontal lobe of the brain during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection(More)
CNS abnormalities can be detected during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, before the development of opportunistic infections or other sequelae of immunodeficiency. However, although end-stage dementia caused by HIV has been linked to the presence of infected and activated macrophages and microglia in the brain, the nature of the changes(More)
Randomizing networks using a naive "accept-all" edge-swap algorithm is generally biased. Building on recent results for nondirected graphs, we construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with nontrivial acceptance probabilities for directed graphs, which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all in and out(More)
We generate new mathematical tools with which to quantify the macroscopic topological structure of large directed networks. This is achieved via a statistical mechanical analysis of constrained maximum entropy ensembles of directed random graphs with prescribed joint distributions for in-and out-degrees and prescribed degree–degree correlation functions. We(More)
Specific neuronal spatial distributional patterns have previously been correlated with increasing severity of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). As astrocytes are also a putative site of neurotoxicity, we investigated the spatial relationships of astrocytes with pyramidal and interneurons in the superior frontal gyrus from 29 patients who died from acquired(More)
  • Patricia M Riccio, Francisco R Klein, Fátima Pagani Cassará, Francisco Muñoz Giacomelli, María E González Toledo, Juan M Racosta +4 others
  • 2013
BACKGROUND Based on the higher frequency of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation during night and early morning hours, we sought to analyze the association between newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation and wake-up ischemic cerebrovascular events. METHODS We prospectively assessed every acute ischemic stroke and TIA patient admitted to our hospital between 2008(More)
Randomising networks using a naive 'accept-all' edge-swap algorithm is generally biased. Building on recent results for nondirected graphs, we construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities for directed graphs, which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all in-and(More)
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