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Recent investigations have identified homologs of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in Archaea termed sRNAs. Archaeal homologs of the box C/D snoRNP core proteins fibrillarin and Nop56/58 have also been identified but a homolog for the eukaryotic 15.5kD snoRNP protein has not been described. Our sequence analysis of archaeal genomes reveals(More)
U14 snRNA is a small nucleolar RNA species essential for eukaryotic pre-rRNA processing. We have previously shown that the mouse U14 snRNA genes are positioned within introns 5, 6, and 8 on the coding strand of the constitutively expressed cognate hsc70 heat shock gene. This genomic organization suggested the possibility that U14 snRNAs are transcribed as(More)
Essential elements for intronic U14 processing have been analyzed by microinjecting various mutant hsc70/Ul4 pre-mRNA precursors into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Initial truncation experiments revealed that elements sufficient for U14 processing are located within the mature snoRNA sequence itself. Subsequent deletions within the U14 coding region demonstrated(More)
Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory networks underlying development and the various signal transduction pathways contributing to morphogenesis. Here we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early murine limb development, when cartilage, tendons, muscle, joints,(More)
Sequences necessary for nucleolar targeting were identified in Box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) by fluorescence microscopy. Nucleolar preparations were examined after injecting fluorescein-labelled wild-type and mutated U14 or U8 snoRNA into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Regions in U14 snoRNA that are complementary to 18S rRNA and necessary for rRNA(More)
The amphibian Xenopus provides a model organism for investigating microRNA expression during vertebrate embryogenesis and development. Searching available Xenopus genome databases using known human pre-miRNAs as query sequences, more than 300 genes encoding 142 Xenopus tropicalis miRNAs were identified. Analysis of Xenopus tropicalis miRNA genes revealed a(More)
Eukarya and Archaea possess scores of RNA-guided nucleotide-modification complexes that target specific ribonucleotides for 2 0-O-methylation or pseudouridyla-tion. Recent characterization of these RNA-modification machines has yielded striking results with implications for their evolutionary origins: the two main classes of nucleotide-modification complex(More)
Methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is required for optimal protein synthesis. Multiple 2'-O-ribose methylations are carried out by box C/D guide ribonucleoproteins [small ribonucleoproteins (sRNPs) and small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs)], which are conserved from archaea to eukaryotes. Methylation is dictated by base pairing between the specific(More)
RNA-guided nucleotide modification complexes direct the post-transcriptional nucleotide modification of both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. We have previously demonstrated that efficient 2'-O-methylation activity guided by an in vitro reconstituted archaeal box C/D sRNP requires juxtaposed box C/D and C'/D' RNP complexes. In these experiments, we investigate(More)
Glycosylation modifies the physicochemical properties and protein binding functions of glycoconjugates. These modifications are biosynthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus by a series of enzymatic transformations that are under complex control. As a result, mature glycans on a given site are heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms. This(More)