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We show that if f : M →M is a pseudo-Anosov homeomorphism on an orientable surface with oriented unstable manifolds and a quadratic expanding factor, then there is a hyperbolic toral automorphism on T2 and a map h : M → T2 such that h is a semi-conjugacy and (M, h) is a branched covering space of T2. We also give another characterization of pseudo-Anosov(More)
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