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Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture has been associated with epidemics of infectious diseases that threaten not only local production, but also wild fish coming into close proximity to marine pens and fish escaping from them. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a frequently fatal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. First recognized in(More)
Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus is the cause of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon. The virus has been shown to contain RNA with structural characteristics similar to those of accepted members of the Orthomyxoviridae. Further biochemical, physiochemical, and morphological characterization of ISA virus was undertaken to clarify its(More)
The genome of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), which infects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), is characterized here. The virus has an RNA genome, as shown by using specific DNA virus metabolic inhibitors and radioactive in vivo labeling of ISAV nucleic acid. Electrophoresis of [14C]uridine-labeled ISAV RNA revealed that the ISAV genome is(More)
The genomic segment encoding the putative hemagglutinin of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is described. Expression of the putative hemagglutinin in a salmon cell line demonstrated hemadsorptive properties of the protein for salmon erythrocytes. The polypeptide was recognized by an ISAV-specific monoclonal antibody. Nucleotide sequencing indicated the(More)
A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the early phase of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The detection threshold for the RT-PCR was estimated to be 0.01 to 0.1 TCID50. A protocol that closely mimics the conditions in populations of farmed salmon was used. The major(More)
Haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS), a serious disease affecting Atlantic salmon on the east coast of Canada, was determined to be caused by infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) through the isolation of the pathogen on the SHK-1 (salmon head kidney) cell line and confirmation by ISAV-specific immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and reverse transcriptase(More)
A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels(More)
Common blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus), and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) obtained from various harvesting and commercial production sites along the Norwegian coast were screened for the presence of norovirus by a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR assay and for possible indicators of fecal contamination, i.e.,(More)
Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon with important commercial consequences. The pathogenicity of the ISA virus (ISAV; an orthomyxovirus) varies, observed as differences in disease development and clinical signs. A small polymorphic region (PR) in the ISAV genomic segment encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) has been(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect the thymidine kinase gene of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and to study the active and latent carrier state in a group of naturally FHV-1 infected specific pathogen free (SPF) cats. The detection limit of PCR products on ethidium bromide stained gels was 390 fg or about 3×103 copies of the FHV-1(More)