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Clinical and MRI investigations were carried out on 27 patients with acquired pendular nystagmus in an attempt to delineate possible sites of lesions responsible for pendular nystagmus and mechanisms underlying the frequent ocular disconjugacy of this nystagmus. The aetiologies were multiple sclerosis (n = 21), brainstem stroke (n = 3) and other(More)
Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhancement seen with magnetic resonance imaging in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) corresponded with sites of blood-brain barrier breakdown judged by traditional markers in areas of inflammatory demyelination. Duration of Gd-DTPA leakage for individual lesions in CREAE varied from 5 days to more(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerves using the STIR (short inversion time inversion recovery) sequence was performed in 37 adult patients with a recent or past attack of optic neuritis. MRI revealed high-signal regions in 84% of symptomatic and 20% of asymptomatic nerves. The mean longitudinal extent of lesions was 1 cm. Slow or poor visual(More)
Brain MRI was performed on 12 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Multifocal white matter lesions indistinguishable from those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) were found in 10. In 5 there were rather extensive symmetric abnormalities in the cerebral (2) or cerebellar white matter (2), or basal ganglia (1). Follow-up MRI after(More)
We performed 15 dynamic gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced MRI studies in 8 patients with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis; 7 were follow-up studies. We measured the time course of enhancement in 102 enhancing lesions for up to 384 minutes, with rest breaks. Immediate postcontrast MRIs demonstrated many different patterns of enhancement. We(More)
The form and distribution of MRI abnormalities in 114 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) have been compared with observations on 53 apparently healthy individuals, 129 patients with isolated focal neurological lesions with which MS often presents (51 patients with optic neuritis, 44 with isolated brainstem lesions and 34 with isolated(More)
MRI of the brain was performed in 53 patients with a variety of degenerative ataxias and related disorders and 96 control subjects. Atrophy of intracranial structures was not seen in patients with the pure type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, or in early cases of Friedreich's ataxia. In advanced Friedreich's ataxia there was atrophy of the vermis and(More)
Postmortem unfixed whole brains from 17 multiple sclerosis and 6 control cases were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a T2-weighted spin echo sequence and histology to determine the relationship between areas of abnormal MRI signal and underlying pathological change. In group 1, small MRI lesions and correspondingly small plaques, most of(More)
The nature and physical significance of the relaxation times T1 and T2 and of proton density are described. Methods of measuring T1 and T2 are discussed with emphasis on the establishment of precision and the maintenance of accuracy. Reported standards of success are briefly reviewed. We expect sensitivities of the order of 1% to be achievable in serial(More)
Ten patients with canal paresis of central origin and ten patients with peripheral canal paresis were studied using MRI of the brainstem to identify lesions within the central vestibular pathways. In the central group, the magnitude of the canal paresis was generally lower than in the peripheral group and removal of fixation had little effect on the(More)