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Clinical and MRI investigations were carried out on 27 patients with acquired pendular nystagmus in an attempt to delineate possible sites of lesions responsible for pendular nystagmus and mechanisms underlying the frequent ocular disconjugacy of this nystagmus. The aetiologies were multiple sclerosis (n = 21), brainstem stroke (n = 3) and other(More)
Brain MRI was performed on 12 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Multifocal white matter lesions indistinguishable from those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) were found in 10. In 5 there were rather extensive symmetric abnormalities in the cerebral (2) or cerebellar white matter (2), or basal ganglia (1). Follow-up MRI after(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerves using the STIR (short inversion time inversion recovery) sequence was performed in 37 adult patients with a recent or past attack of optic neuritis. MRI revealed high-signal regions in 84% of symptomatic and 20% of asymptomatic nerves. The mean longitudinal extent of lesions was 1 cm. Slow or poor visual(More)
The form and distribution of MRI abnormalities in 114 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) have been compared with observations on 53 apparently healthy individuals, 129 patients with isolated focal neurological lesions with which MS often presents (51 patients with optic neuritis, 44 with isolated brainstem lesions and 34 with isolated(More)
We performed 15 dynamic gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced MRI studies in 8 patients with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis; 7 were follow-up studies. We measured the time course of enhancement in 102 enhancing lesions for up to 384 minutes, with rest breaks. Immediate postcontrast MRIs demonstrated many different patterns of enhancement. We(More)
MRI of the brain was performed in 53 patients with a variety of degenerative ataxias and related disorders and 96 control subjects. Atrophy of intracranial structures was not seen in patients with the pure type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, or in early cases of Friedreich's ataxia. In advanced Friedreich's ataxia there was atrophy of the vermis and(More)
Formalin-fixed brain slices from four cases of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy in which a firm diagnosis could be made both clinically and pathologically have been studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The slices were subsequently embedded in paraffin-wax or celloidin and sections were cut in the same plane as the MRI slices. There was a(More)
Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhancement seen with magnetic resonance imaging in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) corresponded with sites of blood-brain barrier breakdown judged by traditional markers in areas of inflammatory demyelination. Duration of Gd-DTPA leakage for individual lesions in CREAE varied from 5 days to more(More)
The evolution of the changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE), a model of immune-mediated demyelination, has been studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) was used to detect BBB breakdown by both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Animals with acute EAE(More)
We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen(More)