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The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that resembles human type I diabetes. This disease can be transferred by purified T cells or cloned T cell lines, implicating an autoimmune T cell attack on the pancreatic beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. As all T cell responses involve recognition of(More)
Evidence has emerged suggesting a role for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in immune cell motility. This provides a rationale for a novel and generalized immunoregulatory role for cannabinoid CB2 receptor-specific compounds. In support of this possibility, we will review the biology of a class of cannabinoid CB2 receptor-specific inverse agonist, the triaryl(More)
Sulfatide (3'sulfogalactosylceramide) is a glycosphingolipid present within the nervous system and in the islets of Langerhans. Anti-sulfatide antibodies have been observed in both pre-diabetic and newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to test in vivo, the therapeutic effect of sulfatide on the development of diabetes in the(More)
The 524--543 region of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), GAD65(524--543), is one of the first fragments of this islet Ag to induce proliferative T cell responses in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. Furthermore, NOD mice given tolerogenic doses of GAD65(524--543) are protected from spontaneous and(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is widely believed to be an autoimmune disease. Recent onset diabetics show destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate (insulitis), with autoantibodies to beta-cells being found even before the onset of symptoms. Susceptibility to the disease is strongly influenced by(More)
B7-1 is a co-stimulatory molecule that signals T-cells that recognize antigen to proliferate and differentiate into effector T-cells. The same cell must present antigen and express co-stimulatory molecules, such as B7-1, to activate naive T-cells. Thus, tissues that do not express co-stimulatory molecules would not be expected to induce immune responses,(More)
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops a high incidence of autoimmune diabetes and is believed to be a good model for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. We isolated T-lymphocyte lines from islets of newly diabetic NOD mice, some of which are autoreactive to NOD spleen cells. Because autoreactive T-lymphocytes have been implicated in(More)
An adoptive transfer model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in the nonobese diabetic mouse was used to examine the roles of alpha 4-integrin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1); and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Antibodies specific for both alpha 4-integrin and one of its ligands,(More)
The growth factor requirements of cloned lines representing two major subsets of CD4+ T cells were examined. The helper subset, which produces IL-4 as its autocrine growth factor, proliferates in response to IL-2 or to IL-4 in the presence of IL-1. The inflammatory subset, which produces IL-2 as its autocrine growth factor, proliferates in response to IL-2(More)
The continued proliferation of activated T cells requires the presence of a lymphocyte growth factor in the culture medium. This study describes a rapid, highly reproducible assay to quantitatively measure levels of this lymphokine. The use of Concanavalin-A blast cells given this assay a high degree of flexibility and convenience. It is shown that the(More)