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The protein product of the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus (DMD) and its mouse homolog (mDMD) have been identified by using polyclonal antibodies directed against fusion proteins containing two distinct regions of the mDMD cDNA. The DMD protein is shown to be approximately 400 kd and to represent approximately 0.002% of total striated muscle(More)
The 14 kb human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cDNA corresponding to a complete representation of the fetal skeletal muscle transcript has been cloned. The DMD transcript is formed by at least 60 exons which have been mapped relative to various reference points within Xp21. The first half of the DMD transcript is formed by a minimum of 33 exons spanning(More)
We have characterized a protein immunologically related to dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. We identify this related protein as a fast-twitch glycolytic isoform (mouse extensor digitorum longus-specific) of myofibrillar alpha-actinin. This specific isoform of alpha-actinin exhibits a more restricted pattern of(More)
An important corollary to the recent advances in our understanding of the primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is the validation of genuine genetic homologues as animal models of the disease in which potential therapies can be tested. The persistent skeletal muscle necrosis that characterizes human Duchenne muscular dystrophy is also seen in the(More)
Dystrophin deficiency in skeletal muscle of the x-linked dystrophic (mdx) mouse can be partially remedied by implantation of normal muscle precursor cells (mpc) (Partridge, T. A., J. E. Morgan, G. R. Coulton, E. P. Hoffman, and L. M. Kunkel. 1989. Nature (Lond.). 337:176-179). However, it is difficult to determine whether this biochemical "rescue" results(More)
A portion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript from human fetal skeletal muscle and mouse adult heart was sequenced, representing approximately 25 percent of the total, 14-kb DMD transcript. The nucleic acid and predicted amino acid sequences from the two species are nearly 90 percent homologous. The amino acid sequence that is predicted(More)
We studied 19 symptomatic female carriers of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene. Most of these dystrophinopathy patients had had an erroneous or ambiguous diagnosis prior to dystrophin immunofluorescence testing. We assessed clinical severity by a standardized protocol, measured X-chromosome inactivation patterns in blood and muscle DNA, and(More)
Dystrophin is the altered gene product in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We used polyclonal antibodies against dystrophin to immunohistochemically localize the protein in human muscle. In normal individuals and in patients with myopathies other than DMD, dystrophin was localized to the sarcolemma of the fibers. The protein was absent or markedly(More)
We used expression profiling to define the pathophysiological cascades involved in the progression of two muscular dystrophies with known primary biochemical defects, dystrophin deficiency (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and alpha-sarcoglycan deficiency (a dystrophin-associated protein). We employed a novel protocol for expression profiling in human tissues(More)