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Human natural killer (NK) cells express several killer cell immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (KIRs) that inhibit their cytotoxicity upon recognition of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on target cells. Additional members of the KIR family, including some that deliver activation signals, have unknown ligand specificity and(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells in mice and humans express a number of structurally diverse receptors that inhibit target cell lysis upon recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed on targets. The contribution of peptide to the structural features of class I required for NK cell inhibition appears to vary depending on the(More)
The relative contribution to cytotoxicity of each of the multiple NK cell activation receptors has been difficult to assess. Using Drosophila insect cells, which express ligands of human NK cell receptors, we show that target cell lysis by resting NK cells is controlled by different receptor signals for cytolytic granule polarization and degranulation.(More)
Abnormal cells deficient in class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression are lysed by a class of lymphocytes called natural killer (NK) cells. This lysis provides a defence against pathogens and tumour cells that downregulate MHC expression to avoid an MHC-restricted, T-cell immune response. Normal cells escape lysis because their MHC molecules(More)
Lytic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes, which include T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, are secretory lysosomes that release their content upon fusion with the plasma membrane (PM), a process known as degranulation. Although vesicle exocytosis has been extensively studied in endocrine and neuronal cells, much less is known about the fusion of lytic(More)
The class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes a polymorphic set of cell surface glycoproteins involved in the regulation of the immune response. Each glycoprotein is a heterodimer composed of a alpha-chain of relative molecular mass (Mr) 34,000 (34 K) and a beta-chain of Mr = 28K. The products of the class II region have(More)
We have examined previously the peptide specificity of the T cell response to myelin basic protein (MBP) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls, and demonstrated that an epitope spanning amino acids 87-106 was frequently recognized. Because this region is encephalitogenic in some experimental animals, it has been postulated that the(More)
The recognition of virus-infected cells by class I MHC-restricted cytotoxic T cells requires endogenous processing of antigen for presentation. It is still unclear whether endogenous processing of antigen can be utilized by class II MHC molecules for presentation. To test this possibility, a human B cell line expressing HLA-A2 and HLA-DR1 was infected with(More)
Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill target cells by releasing the content of secretory lysosomes at the immune synapse. To understand the dynamics and control of cytotoxic immune synapses, we imaged human primary, live natural killer cells on lipid bilayers carrying ligands of activation receptors. Formation of an organized synapse was dependent on the presence of(More)
In this study, we evaluated the role of the two functional HLA-DR heterodimers, DR2a (DR alpha paired with the beta chain encoded by DRB5*0101) and DR2b (DR alpha paired with the beta chain encoded by DRB1*1501), that are coexpressed in the multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated haplotype HLA-DR15 Dw2, in presenting myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides to(More)