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—Genetic and simplex-downhill (SD) algorithms were used for the optimization of the electron-beam lithography (EBL) step in the fabrication of microwave electronic circuits. The definition of submicrometer structures involves complex exposure patterns that are cumbersome to determine experimentally and very difficult to optimize with linear search(More)
The classical three-waves theory of American peopling through Beringia was based on a mixed anthropological and linguistic methodology. The use of mtDNA, Y chromosome and other DNA markers offers different results according to the different markers and methodologies chosen by different authors. At present, the peopling of Americas remains uncertain,(More)
The study of the dose–response relationship of disinfectants is of great importance in treating infection, the objective being to use concentrations above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Below these concentrations, the bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect may be insufficient. Moreover, at low concentrations, a hormetic effect may be observed,(More)
This paper reports the advantages of coupling strong anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry for the speciation of four arsenic species in wine and mineral water. The procedure developed allows the direct speciation of arsenic in these samples with good sensitivity, selectivity, precision(More)
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