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MOTIVATION Molecular biotechnology now makes it possible to build elaborate systems models, but the systems biology community needs information standards if models are to be shared, evaluated and developed cooperatively. RESULTS We summarize the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 1, a free, open, XML-based format for representing biochemical(More)
Genetic variation at hypervariable loci is being used extensively for linkage analysis and individual identification, and may be useful for inter-population studies. Here we show that polymorphic microsatellites (primarily CA repeats) allow trees of human individuals to be constructed that reflect their geographic origin with remarkable accuracy. This is(More)
Mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have been used extensively in the study of modern human origins and other phylogenetic questions, but not in the context of their sex-specific modes of transmission. mtDNA is transmitted exclusively by females, whereas the Y chromosome is passed only among males. As a result, differences in the reproductive output or(More)
It is often taken for granted that the human species is divided in rather homogeneous groups or races, among which biological differences are large. Studies of allele frequencies do not support this view, but they have not been sufficient to rule it out either. We analyzed human molecular diversity at 109 DNA markers, namely 30 microsatellite loci and 79(More)
We examined a set of populations mainly from Europe but also from the Middle East and North Africa for the three Y-linked microsatellites YCAII, DYS19 (about 1300 individuals) and DYS392 (about 350 individuals). Three markers (YCAII a5-b1 Ht, DYS19-190 bp and DYS392-254 bp) show decreasing gradients of frequency from western Europe towards the Middle East(More)
A new set of European genetic data has been analyzed to dissect independent patterns of geographic variation. The most important cause of European genetic variation has been confirmed to correspond to the migration of Neolithic farmers from the area of origin of agriculture in the Middle East. The next most important component of genetic variation is(More)
The first set of geographic distribution maps of human gene in China are published, including 12 alleles: IB and IO of ABO system, m of MNS system, P1, Rh-D, A1 and A11 of HLA system, Gm1;21 and Gm1,3;5 of immunoglobulin, AK1, deficient type of G6PD, and PTC test blindness gene t. These maps not only show the geographic distribution of alleles, but also can(More)
In an earlier paper it was shown that linguistic families of languages spoken by a set of 38 populations associate rather strongly with an evolutionary tree of the same populations derived from genetic data. While the correlation was clearly high, there was no evaluation of statistical significance; no such test was available at the time. This gap has now(More)