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This paper is devoted to a theory of the NMR signal behavior in biological tissues in the presence of static magnetic field inhomogeneities. We have developed an approach that analytically describes the NMR signal in the static dephasing regime where diffusion phenomena may be ignored. This approach has been applied to evaluate the NMR signal in the(More)
Susceptibility differences between tissues can be utilized as a new type of contrast in MRI that is different from spin density, T1-, or T2-weighted imaging. Signals from substances with different magnetic susceptibilities compared to their neighboring tissue will become out of phase with these tissues at sufficiently long echo times (TEs). Thus, phase(More)
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a new neuroimaging technique, which uses tissue magnetic susceptibility differences to generate a unique contrast, different from that of spin density, T1, T2, and T2*. In this review (the first of 2 parts), we present the technical background for SWI. We discuss the concept of gradient-echo images and how we can(More)
We have measured the T2* signal response associated with cortical activation due to finger motion at 1.5 Tesla. Both thin slice 2D and 3D images show signal intensity changes which vary from 2% to 32% depending on volunteer, echo time, slice thickness, and in-plane resolution. The largest signal change occurred for the thinnest slices and highest resolution(More)
Several gradient-echo fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effects are described in the literature: extravascular spin dephasing around capillaries and veins, intravascular phase changes, and transverse relaxation changes of blood. This work considers a series of tissue compartmentalized models incorporating each of these effects, and tries to(More)
PURPOSE To establish a baseline of phase differences between tissues in a number of regions of the human brain as a means of detecting iron abnormalities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS A fully flow-compensated, three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution, gradient-echo (GRE) susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence was(More)
Conventional clinical neuroimaging is insensitive to axonal injury in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Immunocytochemical staining reveals changes to axonal morphology within hours, suggesting potential for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) in early diagnosis and management of TBI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes the three-dimensional(More)
Aging is marked by individual differences and differential vulnerability of cognitive operations and their neural substrates. Cross-sectional studies of brain volume reveal greater age-related shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus than in the entorhinal and primary visual cortex. Longitudinal studies of regional brain shrinkage(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the magnetic susceptibility of brain tissue and iron concentration. Phase shifts in gradient-echo images (TE = 60 ms) were measured in 21 human subjects, (age 0.7-45 years) and compared with published values of regional brain iron concentration. Phase was correlated with brain iron(More)