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This paradigm distinguished between two hypotheses not previously directly addressed. Do repeated exposures to cocaine at critical times during pregnancy, when the neural mechanisms that support maternal behavior are being read, alter some fundamental neural underpinning of maternal behavior in rats? Alternatively, does cocaine alter maternal behavior only(More)
We have determined the temporal pattern of plasma cocaine levels and increased activity that result from acute systemic injections of cocaine to female rats in two different endocrine and behavioral states, in nonmaternal virgins and in lactating maternal dams. Plasma levels of cocaine as well as ambulatory and rearing activity were determined every 30 min(More)
BACKGROUND Concern has been expressed about the nutrition and health impact of high rates of soft drink consumption. Caffeine is an added ingredient in approximately 70% of soft drinks consumed in the United States. The soft drink manufacturers' justification to regulatory agencies and the public for adding caffeine to soft drinks is that caffeine is a(More)
Subcutaneous injections of cocaine hydrochloride in sterile physiological saline were administered to rats at a dosage of 20 or 40 mg.kg-1. Resultant skin lesions included focal areas of alopecia (within 1 to 2 days) which progressed to necrosis (within 2 to 7 days). Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by necrotizing panniculitis and(More)
Cocaine was microinfused bilaterally (50 microg/0.5 microl/side) into the medial preoptic area (MPOA) or nucleus accumbens (NA), 2 regions within the rat brain neural circuit known to mediate maternal behavior (MB). Additionally, 2 sites not involved in this neural circuit, the dorsal striatum and dorsal medial hippocampus, were used as control sites.(More)
BACKGROUND TCH346 exerts antiapoptotic effects by binding to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and blocking the apoptotic pathway in which GAPDH is involved. Apoptosis is considered to be a key pathogenic mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. METHODS Patients were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive(More)
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