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This study examined whether individuals with substance dependence (ISDs) show impairments in working memory and whether there is a relationship between their impairments in decision making as measured by the gambling task (GT) paradigm and working memory as measured by a delayed nonmatching to sample (DNMS) task. Using the GT, 11% of healthy control(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive performance, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS We evaluated the cognitive functions of men enrolled in the cardiovascular disease substudy of the Multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND Recent case reports have suggested that some asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals can develop CNS disturbances despite intact immunologic functioning and long-term suppression of plasma HIV concentrations to undetectable levels. This possibility has not yet been systematically studied longitudinally. METHODS Using longitudinal data from the(More)
From a public health standpoint, identifying factors that contribute to risky sexual practices among substance-dependent individuals is critical, particularly in the context of HIV infection. This study examines the respective contributions of executive neurocognitive functions, sensation seeking, and HIV serostatus in predicting risky sexual practices(More)
HIV-seropositive (HIV+) drug users show impaired performance on measures of integrity of prefrontal-subcortical systems. The Iowa Gambling Task (GT) is mediated primarily through ventromedial-prefrontal systems, and poor performance on this measure ("cognitive impulsivity") is common among substance dependent individuals (SDIs) as well as patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed, and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS Participants included 952 HIV-infected and(More)
We evaluated auditory working memory in 41 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 37 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) male drug users, employing a modified version of the Letter-Number Span Task developed by Gold and colleagues. We added a control condition to the standard task in order to evaluate more directly the contribution of the processing component to the working(More)
Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction(More)
Substance dependent individuals (SDIs) are frequently, but not invariably, impaired on tasks of executive functions. In this study, we examine patterns of executive performance among subjects with different self-reported "drug of choice" (defined as substance used>80% of the time prior to abstinence). Subjects were 33 abstinent SDIs receiving inpatient(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the neurocognitive function in 220 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a study of disease progression in women living with HIV/AIDS and in HIV-negative controls. METHODS We evaluated the prevalence of abnormal neuropsychological (NP) results in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive compared with HCV-negative women(More)