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BACKGROUND Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women of childbearing age and increasing evidence suggests that the risk of osteoporotic fracture in adulthood could be determined partly by environmental factors during intrauterine and early postnatal life. We investigated the effect of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy on childhood skeletal growth.(More)
1234 be related to low birth weight in these men and women, and to low weight at 1 year among the men. 3 This was the first study based on individual (rather than ecological) level data to demonstrate such relationships. Having studied mortality, the next stage was to explore the relationship between the early environment and a range of morbidity outcomes(More)
Low birth weight, a marker of adverse intrauterine circumstances, is known to be associated with a range of disease outcomes in later life, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. However, it may also decrease the risk of other common conditions, most notably neoplastic disease. The authors describe the(More)
Studies of the association between polymorphisms of the gene for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and adult bone mass have been inconsistent, pointing to the possibility that gene--environment interactions may vary in different populations. We have demonstrated previously an association between weight in infancy (a marker of the intrauterine and early(More)
BACKGROUND The lower limb muscle strength is an important determinant of physical function in older people. However, measurement in clinical and epidemiological settings has been limited because of the requirement for large-scale equipment. A protocol using a novel, versatile hand-held dynamometer (HHD) has been developed to measure the quadriceps strength(More)
INTRODUCTION Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength with age, is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in older people. AIM To determine whether there is a relationship between grip strength and features of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS Data were collected on grip strength, fasting glucose,(More)
BACKGROUND Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety. METHOD We used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme: the Aberdeen(More)
Previous studies of diet and lung function have focused on associations with individual nutrients and foods, and not dietary patterns. The relationships between dietary patterns and lung function and spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated in 1,551 males and 1,391 females in Hertfordshire, UK. Dietary(More)
BACKGROUND reduced grip strength is associated with adverse health consequences, and there is interest in identifying modifiable influences. Cardiovascular drugs are commonly used by older people, but their effect on muscle strength is unclear. METHODS we investigated associations between cardiovascular drug use and grip strength among 1,572 men and 1,415(More)
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength; it is a major contributor to the risk of physical frailty, functional impairment in older people, poor health-related quality of life and premature death. Many different definitions have been used to describe sarcopenia and have(More)