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Records from the General Practice Research Database were used to derive age- and gender-specific fracture incidence rates for England and Wales during the period 1988-1998. In total, 103,052 men and 119,317 women in the sample of 5 million adults sustained a fracture over 10.4 million and 11.2 million person-years (py) of follow-up. Among women, the most(More)
1234 be related to low birth weight in these men and women, and to low weight at 1 year among the men. 3 This was the first study based on individual (rather than ecological) level data to demonstrate such relationships. Having studied mortality, the next stage was to explore the relationship between the early environment and a range of morbidity outcomes(More)
To estimate changes in the age- and gender-specific prevalence of Paget's disease in Britain, we performed a radiographic survey of the disorder in 10 British centers, using sampling and radiographic methods identical to a study performed in 1974. In each center, a sample of abdominal radiographs of people aged 55 years and over was taken from stored films(More)
Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age-related fractures. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of a hip fracture in white women is 17.5%, with a comparable risk in men of 6%. Hip fractures lead to an overall reduction in survival of(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women of childbearing age and increasing evidence suggests that the risk of osteoporotic fracture in adulthood could be determined partly by environmental factors during intrauterine and early postnatal life. We investigated the effect of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy on childhood skeletal growth.(More)
Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with an increased risk of fracture in both adults and children. It has been suggested that, despite greater bone size, obese individuals may have reduced true volumetric density; however this is difficult to assess using two dimensional techniques such as DXA. We evaluated the relationship between fat(More)
Evidence is accruing that environmental exposures during critical periods of early development induce persisting changes in skeletal growth, and alter fracture risk in later life. We have previously demonstrated that placental calcium transport, partly determined by maternal 25-(OH) vitamin D status, may underlie this phenomenon. However, the precise(More)