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Targeted gene disruption in the mouse shows that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene plays a critical role in patterning of vertebrate embryonic tissues, including the brain and spinal cord, the axial skeleton and the limbs. Early defects are observed in the establishment or maintenance of midline structures, such as the notochord and the floorplate, and later(More)
To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in rodents, we disrupted the ligand-binding domain of the alpha isoform of mouse PPAR (mPPAR alpha) by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the mutation lack expression of mPPAR alpha protein and yet are viable and fertile and exhibit no detectable gross(More)
Mutation of RPE65 can cause severe blindness from birth or early childhood, and RPE65 protein is associated with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) vitamin A metabolism. Here, we show that Rpe65-deficient mice exhibit changes in retinal physiology and biochemistry. Outer segment discs of rod photoreceptors in Rpe65-/- mice are disorganized compared with those(More)
Glial-lial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been isolated as neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Because of its neurotrophic activity on a wide range of neuronal populations in vitro and in vivo, GDNF is being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for neuronal disorders. During mammalian development, it is expressed(More)
Maternal effect genes produce mRNA or proteins that accumulate in the egg during oogenesis. We show here that Mater, a mouse oocyte protein dependent on the maternal genome, is essential for embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage. Females lacking the maternal effect gene Mater are sterile. Null males are fertile.
We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein. Lhx2 mutant embryos are anophthalmic, have malformations of the cerebral cortex, and die in utero due to severe anemia. In Lhx2-/- embryos specification of the optic vesicle(More)
We describe a transgenic mouse line carrying the cre transgene under the control of the adenovirus EIIa promoter that targets expression of the Cre recombinase to the early mouse embryo. To assess the ability of this recombinase to excise loxP-flanked DNA sequences at early stages of development, we bred EIIa-cre transgenic mice to two different mouse lines(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the effect of obesity on the serum levels of total and free IGF-1 and their relationship to the circulating levels of insulin and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in age and sex-matched groups. SUBJECTS The study included 43 obese subjects (ideal body weight; IBW > 120%) and 45 controls (IBW < 100%). All of the subjects were male.(More)
Of the five known dopamine receptors, D1A and D2 represent the major subtypes expressed in the striatum of the adult brain. Within the striatum, these two subtypes are differentially distributed in the two main neuronal populations that provide direct and indirect pathways between the striatum and the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Movement disorders,(More)