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PURPOSE To identify changes in the embryology of the hippocampus responsible for its adult anatomy. METHODS Ten human fetal specimens ranging from 13 to 24 weeks' gestational age were examined with MR imaging. Dissections and histologic sections of 10 different specimens of similar ages were compared with MR imaging findings. RESULTS At 13 to 14 weeks'(More)
PURPOSE To define the normal and abnormal genu of the corpus callosum by examining its evolution and embryology and by analyzing its normal and abnormal appearance on MR images. METHODS A reference line was drawn from the mamillary body through the anterior commissure and corpus callosum-the MAC line. This line was used to evaluate the genu in adult(More)
Much remains to be learned about the embryology and pathophysiology of the "tethered cord syndrome." Of particular importance in tethered cord syndrome is spinal cord stretchability and its relation to resultant cord dysfunction. In this study, cord elongation was observed in fresh fetuses and in animals by applying weights or forceps traction at the conus(More)
PURPOSE To study the anatomy and embryology of the lamina rostralis, and to determine whether the rostrum is, as frequently stated, the last section of the corpus callosum to develop. METHODS The rostrum was analyzed in dissected adult brains and on MR studies in 300 patients with a normal corpus callosum and in 84 patients with a hypogenetic corpus(More)
Hemifacial spasm is a symptom complex comprising involuntary, painless spasms of the orbicularis muscle that may progress to involve all facial muscles. It is frequently the result of compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone from the brain stem by vascular loops or aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior(More)
Over the past several decades, neuroscientists have become progressively aware of a group of cerebrovascular diseases in which the deep structures of the cerebrum are affected in preference to the cortex. Examples include sub-cortical dementia, subcortical infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage , and neonatal germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage. To(More)
PURPOSE To facilitate understanding of limbic lobe anatomy by showing embryologic transformations of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. METHODS Brains from fetal specimens ranging from 13 to 24 weeks of gestational age were dissected. Photographs were made of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. MR images of different fetal specimens(More)
PURPOSE To determine the cause and frequency of high-signal-intensity foci detected in the insular cortex and extreme capsule on thin-section, high-spatial-resolution, coronal, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS The authors assessed high-signal-intensity areas in the insular cortex and extreme capsule on coronal MR images(More)
This study of 34 normal ears was conducted in order to define more precisely the normal computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of the osseous external auditory canal. Great variability was found in canal configuration and its relationship to the temporal squama. The understanding of normal CT appearance of the various fissures along the anterior wall of the(More)