E K Pramod Kumar

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Optical pH nanosensors have been applied for monitoring intracellular pH in real-time for about two decades. However, the pH sensitivity range of most nanosensors is too narrow, and measurements that are on the borderline of this range may not be correct. Furthermore, ratiometric measurements of acidic intracellular pH (pH < 4) in living cells are still(More)
Gallium, a group IIIa metal salt, has been demonstrated to be an effective immunosuppressive agent. Gallium has also been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, produced by macrophage-like cells in vitro. To further characterize the effects of gallium on the inflammatory process, we examined the effects of gallium(More)
Dental practitioners must be knowledgeable regarding microbial contamination and biofilm formation in dental unit waterlines. Education should stress the need for improvement in the quality of water delivered to patients during treatment. Manufacturers must also play an important role by providing training and education regarding the proper use and(More)
Optical nanoparticle pH sensors designed for ratiometric measurements have previously been synthesized using post-functionalization approaches to introduce sensor molecules and to modify nanoparticle surface chemistry. This strategy often results in low control of the nanoparticle surface chemistry and is prone to batch-to-batch variations, which is(More)
The gene that codes for human growth hormone (hGH) is used as a reporter gene to assess changes an effector may have on gene expression of a specific DNA sequence (6). hGH is secreted into the medium of transfected cells following the addition of an appropriate effector; measurement of hGH levels allows for quantification of the degree of activation (or(More)
The design flexibility that polymeric micelles offer in the fabrication of optical nanosensors for ratiometric pH measurements is investigated. pH nanosensors based on polymeric micelles are synthesized either by a mixed-micellization approach or by a postmicelle modification strategy. In the mixed-micellization approach, self-assembly of functionalized(More)
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