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HIV persists in a reservoir of latently infected CD4(+) T cells in individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Here we identify central memory (T(CM)) and transitional memory (T(TM)) CD4(+) T cells as the major cellular reservoirs for HIV and find that viral persistence is ensured by two different mechanisms. HIV primarily(More)
Correlates of immune-mediated protection to most viral and cancer vaccines are still unknown. This impedes the development of novel vaccines to incurable diseases such as HIV and cancer. In this study, we have used functional genomics and polychromatic flow cytometry to define the signature of the immune response to the yellow fever (YF) vaccine 17D (YF17D)(More)
Adjuvants are critical for the success of vaccines. Agonists of microbial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are promising new adjuvant candidates. A mechanism through which adjuvants enhance immune responses is to stimulate innate immunity. We studied the innate immune response in humans to synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid(More)
The molecular events involved in the establishment and maintenance of CD4+ central memory and effector memory T cells (TCM and TEM, respectively) are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that ex vivo isolated TCM are more resistant to both spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis than TEM and have an increased capacity to proliferate and persist in(More)
Because mutations in Rab27a have been linked to immune defects in humans, we have examined cytotoxic lymphocyte function in ashen mice, which contain a splicing mutation in Rab27a. Ashen cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) showed a >90% reduction in lytic activity on Fas-negative target cells compared with control C3H CTLs, and ashen natural killer cell activity(More)
Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells provide B cells with signals that are important for the generation of high-affinity Abs and immunological memory and, therefore, are critical for the protective immunity elicited by most human vaccines. Transcriptional regulators of human Tfh cell differentiation are poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that(More)
In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of HIV-specific and HIV-infected CD4 T cells within different populations of memory CD4 T cells isolated from lymph nodes of viremic HIV-infected subjects. Four memory CD4 T cell populations were identified on the basis of the expression of CXCR5, PD-1, and Bcl-6: CXCR5(-)PD-1(-)Bcl-6(-),(More)
The persistence of central memory CD4(+) T cells (T(CM) cells) is a major correlate of immunological protection in HIV/AIDS, as the rate of T(CM) cell decline predicts HIV disease progression. In this study, we show that T(CM) cells and effector memory CD4(+) T cells (T(EM) cells) from HIV(+) elite controller (EC) subjects are less susceptible to(More)
Chronic viral infections lead to persistent CD8 T cell activation and functional exhaustion. Expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) has been associated to CD8 T cell dysfunction in HIV infection. Herein we report that another negative regulator of T cell activation, CD160, was also upregulated on HIV-specific CD8 T lymphocytes mostly during the(More)
HIV infection results in gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage, microbial translocation, and immune activation, which are not completely ameliorated with suppression of viremia by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality of ARV-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with these dysfunctions. Thus, to enhance GI tract(More)