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Fermentation-derived products are in greater demand to meet the increasing global market as well as to overcome environmental problems. In this work, Escherichia coli has been metabolically engineered with acrylate pathway genes from Clostridium propionicum for the conversion of d-lactic acid to propionic acid. The introduced synthetic pathway consisted of(More)
Electron bifurcation is a fundamental strategy of energy coupling originally discovered in the Q-cycle of many organisms. Recently a flavin-based electron bifurcation has been detected in anaerobes, first in clostridia and later in acetogens and methanogens. It enables anaerobic bacteria and archaea to reduce the low-potential [4Fe-4S] clusters of(More)
Staphylococcus aureus, the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, is also pathogenic to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans-S. aureus infection model was previously carried out on solid agar plates where the bacteriovorous C. elegans feeds on a lawn of S. aureus. However, agar-based assays are not amenable(More)
Anaerobic bacteria ferment glutamate via two different pathways to ammonia, carbon dioxide, acetate, butyrate and molecular hydrogen. The coenzyme B12-dependent pathway in Clostridium tetanomorphum via 3-methylaspartate involves pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a novel enzyme, a membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The flavin- and(More)
The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii couples caffeate reduction with electrons derived from hydrogen to the synthesis of ATP by a chemiosmotic mechanism with sodium ions as coupling ions, a process referred to as caffeate respiration. We addressed the nature of the hitherto unknown enzymatic activities involved in this process and their(More)
The rise of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and a concomitant decrease in antibiotic treatment options warrants a search for new classes of antibacterial agents. We have found that A. baumannii is pathogenic and lethal to the model host organism Caenorhabditis elegans and have exploited this phenomenon to develop an automated, high-throughput,(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial(More)
Translation in eukaryotes is followed to detect toxins and virulence factors and coupled to the induction of defence pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans germline-specific mutations in translation components are detected by this system to induce detoxification and immune responses in distinct somatic cells. An RNA interference screen revealed gene inactivations(More)
Effectors are virulence factors that are secreted by bacteria during an infection in order to subvert cellular processes or induce the surveillance system of the host. Pathogenic microorganisms encode effectors, toxins and components of secretion systems that inject the effectors to the host. Escherichia coli is part of the innocuous commensal microbial(More)