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Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of using polarization discrimination to improve visibility when imaging in a scattering medium. The study is motivated by the desire to improve visibility depth in turbid environments, such as the sea. Most previous research in this area has concentrated on the active illumination of objects with(More)
Ellipsometer measurements of the effective complex refractive index at a wavelength of 10.6 μm are made on a series of glass and aluminum surfaces of increasing surface roughness. The measured values are then used to calculate the degree of emission polarization and are shown to be in agreement with the experimentally determined values when depolarization(More)
A study of cross-polarized and copolarized intensities backscattered from roughened aluminum surfaces is presented for both linear and circular incident polarization states. The angular variation of measured Mueller matrices is shown to contain only diagonal elements, as predicted by the reciprocity theorem. The ratio of cross-depolarized to copolarized(More)
Heterodyne detection has been used to measure the enhanced backscattering from a standard target consisting of a plane mirror positioned behind a moving ground-glass disk (assumed to act as a phase screen). A tilt of the plane mirror in combination with spectral filtering of the detector output allows isolation of the double-scattered component of the light(More)
We report laboratory target vibration measurements that use an easily aligned and adjusted fiber-based 1.5-microm heterodyne lidar. The targets are simple spherically curved retroreflectors with well-controlled vibration frequencies and amplitudes. A rotating ground-glass screen creates Gaussian speckle. We wish to understand the modulated and fast-fading(More)
We report experiments in which a fiber-coupled heterodyne laser system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 microm is used to measure the phase fluctuations induced on a laser beam by passage through a thin layer of turbulent air and subsequent propagation through free space. We investigate the statistical properties and power spectra of the phase and its rate(More)
A relationship is established between the autocorrelation function of continuous Gaussian and non-Gaussian stochastic processes and the discrete process that describes their zero or level crossings. Random fractals occur when the distribution for the number of crossings is described by a class of Markov processes whose singlefold statistics are the discrete(More)
Diagnostics applied to a rice-pile cellular automaton reveal different mechanisms producing power-law behaviors of statistical attributes of grains which are germane to self organised critical phenomena. The probability distributions for these quantities can be derived from two distinct random walk models that account for correlated clustered behavior(More)