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BACKGROUND There is increased risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV is highest in sub-Saharan Africa; however, HIV-related cardiovascular risk research is largely derived from developed country settings. Herein, we describe the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a large HIV treatment program in(More)
BACKGROUND The monitoring of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are treated with antiretroviral medications in resource-limited settings is typically performed by use of clinical and immunological criteria. The early identification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure is critical to prevent morbidity, mortality, and(More)
CONTEXT The burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease in children, particularly in HIV-infected children, is poorly described because of a lack of effective diagnostic tests and the emphasis of public health programs on transmissible TB. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to describe the observed incidence of and risk factors for TB diagnosis among(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for tuberculosis elimination in the United States, but the major limitation is poor adherence to therapy. To aid the design of targeted adherence interventions, we investigated the factors associated with noncompletion of isoniazid (INH) therapy for LTBI. METHODS A retrospective(More)
Secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) induce strong T cell responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion, both of which are integral in the defense against Mtb. We used web-based tools (SignaIP and Prosite) to identify putative secreted proteins from Mtb genomes CDC 1551 and H37Rv. We then used EpiMatrix, a proprietary(More)
The overlapping epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) and the catastrophic consequences of the interactions between the two epidemics have led to increased morbidity and mortality due to HIV-associated TB. While effective therapy is available for both conditions, there are major challenges in the concurrent(More)
Noncommunicable diseases are rapidly overtaking infectious, perinatal, nutritional, and maternal diseases as the major causes of worldwide death and disability. It is estimated that, within the next 10 to 15 years, the increasing burden of chronic diseases and the aging of the population will expose the world to an unprecedented burden of chronic diseases.(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study conducted between October 10, 2005, and February 28, 2009. SETTING United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access To(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of tuberculous disease in children remains a difficult one, based on epidemiologic investigation, Mantoux skin testing and suggestive radiologic findings. Because children with pulmonary tuberculosis are unable to produce sputum, gastric aspirates remain the procedure of choice for microbiologic confirmation of tuberculous disease;(More)