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OBJECTIVE Stressful life events, long-term difficulties, and high neuroticism are established risk factors for depression. Less is known about their role in late-life depression, how they modify or mediate one another's effects, and whether this differs between major and subsyndromal, first and recurrent episodes. METHOD The authors used a prospective(More)
BACKGROUND This study describes the differences in psychological distress, disability and psychosocial resources between types of major medical conditions and sensory impairments (collectively denoted as CMCs); and tests whether disability and psychosocial resources mediate CMC-specific mental health effects. METHODS Data were obtained from a(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated the long-term outcome of depression and anxiety and associated disability among primary-care attenders with common psychiatric disorders and symptoms (n = 201) using binary and multicategorical, interview-based outcome measures of psychiatric illness and disability. METHODS A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 1994(More)
The authors investigated the association of premorbidly-assessed disability and neuroticism with the onset of late-life depression in 86 depressed and 72 randomly selected control persons, originating from a 1993 Dutch community study of elderly people. Compared with elderly people with average levels of disability and neuroticism, people with low levels(More)
The results of a study on the comparison of the original 20-item Mini-Mental State Examination with a shortened 12-item version as a brief screening test for cognitive impairments in a community based older sample are presented. The scores on the MMSE decrease with higher ages and lower levels of education. The results show that a threshold value of 24 on(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of stressful life events and long-term difficulties in the onset of episodes of unipolar depression is well established for young and middle-aged persons, but less so for older people. METHOD A prospective case-control study was nested in a large community survey of older people. We recruited 83 onset cases during a 2-year period(More)
The perceived parental rearing practices and attitudes of social phobics, agoraphobics, height phobics and non-patient normal controls were investigated, employing the EMBU, an inventory for assessing memories of upbringing. Findings revealed that, as compared with the controls, social phobics and height phobics scored both parents not only as lacking in(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study is to increase knowledge regarding associations between couples' health condition and psychological distress in both spouses considering gender as well as patient/spouse status. METHOD We examined a community-based sample of 995 elderly couples in which either both spouses were healthy, one of them suffered from(More)
The EMBU, an instrument which was designed to assess one's memories of parental rearing behaviour, was psychometrically evaluated. Principal component factor analysis of data of a mixed sample of 841 non-institutionalized phobic individuals revealed four factors which were termed Rejection, Emotional warmth, Over-protection and Favouring subject, thereby(More)
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