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Oxidation is an important method for the synthesis of chemical intermediates in the manufacture of high-tonnage commodities, high-value fine chemicals, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals: but oxidations are often inefficient. The introduction of catalytic systems using oxygen from air is preferred for 'green' processing. Gold catalysis is now showing(More)
Aqueous liquid mixtures, in particular, those involving amphiphilic species, play an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. Of particular interest are alcohol/water mixtures; however, the structural dynamics of such systems are still not fully understood. Herein, a combination of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and(More)
Existing theories and computer models for packed columns are either incapable of handling complex pellet shapes or based on simplified pellet geometry. A digital packing algorithm, namely DigiPac, has recently been developed to fill the gap. It is capable of packing of particles of any shapes and sizes in a container of arbitrary geometry, and is a first(More)
The laboratory-scale Turbula mixer comprises a simple cylindrical vessel that moves with a complex, yet periodic 3D motion comprising of rotation, translation and inversion. Arising from this complexity, relatively few studies to obtain fundamental understanding of particle motion and mixing mechanisms have been reported. Particle motion within a(More)
Mixing and segregation in a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer, using binary mixtures with varied particle size ratio and volume fraction, were studied using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). As the blade moves within the particle bed, size induced segregations can occur via a sifting mechanism. A larger particle size ratio and/or a larger volume fraction of(More)
Steam reforming reaction heat effects were implemented in CFD simulations of different packed tube models of 1-hole and 4-hole cylinders. A computa-tionally less expensive 120 • wall segment approach was utilized for the simulations in this study. Heat effects of the reactions were introduced by heat gen-eration/consumption terms in the catalyst particles(More)
New engineered materials have critical applications in different fields in medicine, engineering and technology but their enhanced mechanical performances are significantly affected by the microstructural design and the sintering process used in their manufacture. This work introduces (i) a methodology for the calculation of the full deflection profile from(More)