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Synthetic biology may be viewed as an effort to establish, formalize, and develop an engineering discipline in the context of biological systems. The ability to tune the properties of individual components is central to the process of system design in all fields of engineering, and synthetic biology is no exception. A large and growing number of approaches(More)
A cDNA encoding a calmodulin-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) was isolated from a human brain cDNA library. The cDNA, designated HSPDE1B1, encoded a protein of 536 amino acids that shared 96% sequence identity with the bovine "63 kDa" calmodulin-stimulated PDE. The recombinant protein had cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase(More)
Cytohesin-1 (B2-1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases, which are important for vesicular protein trafficking and coatamer assembly in the cell. Cytohesin-1 also has been reported to promote cellular adhesion via binding to the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The solution structure of the Sec7 domain of(More)
The leukocyte integrin, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) (CD11a/CD18), mediates cell adhesion and signaling in inflammatory and immune responses. To support these functions, LFA-1 must convert from a resting to an activated state that avidly binds its ligands such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Biochemical and x-ray studies(More)
The I domain of the integrin LFA-1 possesses a ligand binding interface that includes the metal ion-dependent adhesion site. Binding of the LFA-1 ligand, ICAM-1 to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site is regulated by the I domain allosteric site (IDAS). We demonstrate here that intracellular signaling leading to activation of LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 is(More)
cDNAs corresponding to two human calcium, calmodulin (CaM)-regulated 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) were isolated. One, Hcam1 (PDE1A3), corresponds to the bovine 61-kDa CaM PDE (PDE1A2). The second, Hcam3 (PDE1C), represents a novel phosphodiesterase gene. Hcam1 encodes a 535-amino acid protein that differs most notably from the bovine(More)
Regulated expression of the human beta-globin gene has been demonstrated in cultured murine erythroleukemia cells and in mice after retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. However, the low titer of recombinant viruses described to date results in relatively inefficient gene transfer, which limits their usefulness for animal studies and for potential gene therapy(More)
The locus activation region (LAR) of the human beta-globin-like gene cluster is characterized by a group of four DNase I hypersensitive sites, which arise specifically in erythroid tissues and are required for a normal pattern of beta-globin-like gene expression. The hypersensitive sites are found at positions 6.1, 10.9, 14.7, and 18 kilobase pairs (kbp) 5'(More)
A novel spectrum differential integration (SDI) method has been proposed and verified in an in-line fiber Mach-Zehnder (MZ) refractive index (RI) sensor using salt solutions. In SDI method, the difference between two interference spectra is determined by pointwise subtraction at each wavelength, followed by integration of the absolute differences along the(More)
Regulation of the human fetal (gamma) globin gene and a series of mutant gamma-globin genes was studied after retroviral transfer into erythroid cells with fetal or adult patterns of endogenous globin gene expression. Steady-state RNA from a virally transferred A gamma-globin gene with a normal promoter increased after induction of erythroid maturation of(More)