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The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) is a semistructured, standardized assessment of social interaction, communication, play, and imaginative use of materials for individuals suspected of having autism spectrum disorders. The observational schedule consists of four 30-minute modules, each designed to be administered to different(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be familial and heritable, in previous studies. As with most psychiatric disorders, examination of pedigrees has not revealed a consistent Mendelian mode of transmission. The response of ADHD patients to medications that inhibit the dopamine transporter, including methylphenidate,(More)
The Child Neurology Society and American Academy of Neurology recently proposed to formulate Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Autism for their memberships. This endeavor was expanded to include representatives from nine professional organizations and four parent organizations, with liaisons from the National Institutes of Health. This(More)
Impairment in social reciprocity is a central component of autism. In preclinical studies, arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to increase a range of social behaviors, including affiliation and attachment, via the V1a receptor (AVPR1A) in the brain. Both the behavioral effects of AVP and the neural distribution of the V1a receptor vary greatly across(More)
Duplications of proximal 15q have been found in individuals with autistic disorder (AD) and varying degrees of mental retardation. Often these abnormalities take the form of a supernumerary inverted duplicated chromosome 15, more properly described as an isodicentric chromosome 15, or idic(15). However, intrachromosomal duplications also have been reported.(More)
Autism is a common disorder of childhood, affecting 1 in 500 children. Yet, it often remains unrecognized and undiagnosed until or after late preschool age because appropriate tools for routine developmental screening and screening specifically for autism have not been available. Early identification of children with autism and intensive, early intervention(More)
The broad variation in phenotypes and severities within autism spectrum disorders suggests the involvement of multiple predisposing factors, interacting in complex ways with normal developmental courses and gradients. Identification of these factors, and the common developmental path into which they feed, is hampered by the large degrees of convergence from(More)
CONTEXT The serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the treatment of choice for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder; however, empirical support for this assertion has been weaker for children and adolescents than for adults. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline hydrochloride in children(More)
The serotonin transporter gene (HTT) is a primary candidate in autistic disorder based on efficacy of potent serotonin transporter inhibitors in reducing rituals and routines. We initiated a candidate gene study of HTT in trios consisting of probands with autistic disorder and both parents. Preliminary transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis with 86(More)
The serotonin system has been implicated as a factor in some cases of autism since the finding in 1961 of elevated serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) levels in the blood of patients with autism. This has been clarified as elevation in the platelet content of serotonin. Subjects with elevated whole blood serotonin levels have been shown to have elevated(More)