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We purified ghrelin from stomach extracts of a teleost fish, the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and found that it contained an amide structure at the C-terminal end. Two molecular forms of ghrelin with 21 amino acids were identified by cDNA and mass spectrometric analyses: eel ghrelin-21, GSS(O-n-octanoyl)FLSPSQRPQGKDKKPP RV-amide and eel ghrelin-21-C10,(More)
The Drosophila tailless gene is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor subfamily. In Drosophila, the tailless gene is required for pattern formation in embryonic poles. During development, tailless is activated in the termini of the embryo in response to the torso receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction cascade. Recessive mutations of tailless result(More)
We have shown previously that chronic hyperammonemia increases, in brain, the polymerization of microtubules that is regulated mainly by the level and state of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dephosphorylates MAP-2. Because we have found that acute ammonia toxicity is(More)
Hyperammonemia increases the polymerization of brain microtubules, which is controlled by the binding of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2; binding of MAP-2 is, in turn, regulated by phosphorylation. We have found that the binding of MAP-2 to tubulin is greatly increased by hyperammonemia, however, the brain content of MAP-2 is not affected.(More)
Three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are isolated and identified here by chemical sequence analysis for one species of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and by HPLC elution position for a second species of tilapia, O. mossambicus. Of the three GnRH forms in O. mossambicus, chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and sea bream GnRH (sbGnRH) are present in(More)
To clarify the roles of prolactin (PRL) and GH in the control of the immune system, the effects of environmental salinity, hypophysectomy, and PRL and GH administration on several immune functions were examined in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW) did not alter plasma levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and(More)
The source of steroid hormones, which potentially regulate gonadal restructuring throughout protogynous sex change in teleosts, remains largely unknown. To address this issue, immunocytochemical methods were employed to detect gonadal sites of steroidogenesis in the protogynous hermaphrodite wrasse Thalassoma duperrey at different stages in the sex change(More)
A method was previously developed for computation of pattern probabilities in random sequences under Markov chain models. We extend this method to the calculation of the joint distribution for two patterns. An application yields the distribution of the right choice measure for expressivity and how significance bounds depend on sequence length. These bounds(More)