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Recently, the vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the rat brain was shown to be restored in senescent rats following long-term testosterone administration. In order to investigate whether this restoration is accompanied by an improvement in learning and memory, both sham- and testosterone-treated young (4.5 months), middle-aged (20 months), and aged (31(More)
Total cell numbers in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were previously shown to remain unaltered with aging and in AD. The aim of the present study was to determine the aging pattern of the oxytocin (OXT) cell population in the PVN. For this purpose, the number of immunocytochemically identified oxytocin cells was determined in the PVN of the human(More)
We have seen that mRNA for several neuropeptides can be visualized at the microscopic level in human post-mortem brain tissues using in situ hybridization histochemistry and oligonucleotides as probes. The specificity of the hybridization signal detected in each case is supported by several criteria such as Northern blot analysis, use of at least two(More)
The research reviewed in the present paper indicates that vasopressin and oxytocin cells in the human HNS constitute an extremely stable population of neurons throughout the human life span. Increases in the activity of these cells, which are probably related to maturation of the system were observed during fetal development and probably extend well beyond(More)
The size, shape and cellular morphology of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the human hypothalamus were examined in relation to sex and age. In both nuclear regions the following parameters were determined: length of the rostrocaudal axis, maximum cross sectional area, volume, numerical cell density, total number of cells and(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is thought to be the main neuronal oscillator underlying circadian rhythmicity of different biological phenomena such as sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. Although numerous studies in old rats showed that circadian organization is clearly disturbed in senescence, no decrease in total SCN cell number has been observed.(More)
In order to study the suitability of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue for vasopressin (AVP)-mRNA detection, we used symmetric halves of 5 human hypothalami. In every case, one half was formalin fixed for 10-35 days and paraffin embedded while the other half was frozen rapidly. Following in situ hybridization (ISH) histochemistry on(More)
Volume and total cell number were determined in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of 14 male and 16 female subjects ranging in age from 10 to 93 years. In addition, 4 male and 6 female subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ranging in age from 46 to 97 years were studied. Subjects were divided into two age groups, viz.,(More)
The neuropeptide vasopressin (VP) is released from the neurohypophysis into the circulation where it acts as antidiuretic hormone on the kidney. In addition, VP is present in nerve cells and fibers in several areas in the rodent and primate brain where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. In the human brain a marked decrease in total cell number(More)