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We purified ghrelin from stomach extracts of a teleost fish, the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and found that it contained an amide structure at the C-terminal end. Two molecular forms of ghrelin with 21 amino acids were identified by cDNA and mass spectrometric analyses: eel ghrelin-21, GSS(O-n-octanoyl)FLSPSQRPQGKDKKPP RV-amide and eel ghrelin-21-C10,(More)
This study investigated endocrine control of branchial ionoregulatory function in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by prolactin (Prl188 and Prl177), growth hormone (Gh) and cortisol. Branchial expression of Na+/Cl− cotransporter (ncc) and Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter (nkcc) genes were employed as specific markers for freshwater- and seawater-type(More)
Three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are isolated and identified here by chemical sequence analysis for one species of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and by HPLC elution position for a second species of tilapia, O. mossambicus. Of the three GnRH forms in O. mossambicus, chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and sea bream GnRH (sbGnRH) are present in(More)
Glucocorticoids are known to impede somatic growth in a wide range of vertebrates. In order to clarify the mechanisms through which they may act in an advanced teleost fish, we examined the effects of cortisol administration on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) system in the tilapia (Oreochromis(More)
To clarify the roles of prolactin (PRL) and GH in the control of the immune system, the effects of environmental salinity, hypophysectomy, and PRL and GH administration on several immune functions were examined in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW) did not alter plasma levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuromodulator, synthesized in the hypothalamus, that regulates both appetite and energy homeostasis in mammals. MCH was initially identified in teleost fishes as a pituitary gland hormone that induced melanin aggregation in chromatophores in the skin; however, this function of MCH has not been observed in other(More)
Prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the freshwater osmoregulation of teleost fish, including the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Consistent with this action, PRL release from the tilapia pituitary increases as extracellular osmolality is reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Dispersed tilapia PRL cells were incubated in a perfusion chamber that allowed(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the causes for the lack of clinical progression in a superinfected HIV-1 LTNP elite controller patient. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We studied host genetic, virological and immunological factors associated with viral control in a SI long term non progressor elite controller (LTNP-EC). The individual contained both viruses and(More)
In the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), as in many euryhaline teleost fish, prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in freshwater adaptation, acting on osmoregulatory surfaces to reduce ion and water permeability and increase solute retention. Consistent with these actions, PRL release is stimulated as extracellular osmolality is reduced both in vivo and in(More)