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We purified ghrelin from stomach extracts of a teleost fish, the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and found that it contained an amide structure at the C-terminal end. Two molecular forms of ghrelin with 21 amino acids were identified by cDNA and mass spectrometric analyses: eel ghrelin-21, GSS(O-n-octanoyl)FLSPSQRPQGKDKKPP RV-amide and eel ghrelin-21-C10,(More)
The Drosophila tailless gene is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor subfamily. In Drosophila, the tailless gene is required for pattern formation in embryonic poles. During development, tailless is activated in the termini of the embryo in response to the torso receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction cascade. Recessive mutations of tailless result(More)
We have shown previously that chronic hyperammonemia increases, in brain, the polymerization of microtubules that is regulated mainly by the level and state of phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dephosphorylates MAP-2. Because we have found that acute ammonia toxicity is(More)
This study investigated endocrine control of branchial ionoregulatory function in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by prolactin (Prl188 and Prl177), growth hormone (Gh) and cortisol. Branchial expression of Na+/Cl− cotransporter (ncc) and Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter (nkcc) genes were employed as specific markers for freshwater- and seawater-type(More)
Injection of large doses of ammonia into rats leads to depletion of brain ATP. However, the molecular mechanism leading to ATP depletion is not clear. The aim of the present work was to assess whether ammonium-induced depletion of ATP is mediated by activation of the NMDA receptor. It is shown that injection of MK-801, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor,(More)
Three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are isolated and identified here by chemical sequence analysis for one species of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and by HPLC elution position for a second species of tilapia, O. mossambicus. Of the three GnRH forms in O. mossambicus, chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and sea bream GnRH (sbGnRH) are present in(More)
Hyperammonemia increases the polymerization of brain microtubules, which is controlled by the binding of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2; binding of MAP-2 is, in turn, regulated by phosphorylation. We have found that the binding of MAP-2 to tubulin is greatly increased by hyperammonemia, however, the brain content of MAP-2 is not affected.(More)
We have proposed that acute ammonia toxicity is mediated by activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type of glutamate receptors. MK-801, a selective antagonist of these receptors, prevents death of animals induced by acute ammonia intoxication as well as ammonia-induced depletion of ATP. It seems therefore that, following activation of the(More)
Glucocorticoids are known to impede somatic growth in a wide range of vertebrates. In order to clarify the mechanisms through which they may act in an advanced teleost fish, we examined the effects of cortisol administration on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) system in the tilapia (Oreochromis(More)