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The copper(I)-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) is shown to be compatible with RNA (with free 2'-hydroxyl groups) in spite of the intrinsic lability of RNA. RNA degradation is minimized through stabilization of the Cu(I) in aqueous buffer with acetonitrile as cosolvent and no other ligand; this suggests the general possibility(More)
Polymer biomolecule hybrids represent a powerful class of highly customizable nanomaterials. Here, we report star-polymer conjugates with DNA using a "ligandless" Cu(I) promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction. The multivalency of the star-polymer architecture allows for the concomitant conjugation of other molecules along with the DNA, and the(More)
The copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition 'click' reaction yields a specific product under mild conditions and in some of the most chemically complex environments. This reaction has been used extensively to tag DNA, proteins, glycans and only recently RNA. Click reactions in aqueous buffer typically include a ligand for Cu(I), however we find that(More)
The use of Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) phenomenon in fluorescence-based bioassays affords for increased sensitivity to be realized by incorporating metal nanoparticles onto planar surfaces. The close-range interactions of metal-fluorophores result in increased fluorescence emission from the bioassays, which in turn affords for the detection of target(More)
Protein-polymer hybrids (PPHs) represent an important and rapidly expanding class of biomaterials. Typically in these hybrids the linkage between the protein and the polymer is covalent. Here we describe a straightforward approach to a noncovalent PPH that is mediated by DNA. Although noncovalent, the DNA-mediated approach affords the highly specific(More)
Nanotechnology based on the highly specific pairing of nucleobases in DNA has been used to generate a wide variety of well-defined two- and three-dimensional assemblies, both static and dynamic. However, control over the junction angles to achieve them has been limited. To achieve higher order assemblies, the strands of the DNA duplex are typically made to(More)
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based star polymers with a cationic core were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for in vitro nucleic acid (NA) delivery. The star polymers were synthesized by ATRP of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Star polymers were characterized by gel permeation(More)
Cationic nanogels with site-selected functionality were designed for the delivery of nucleic acid payloads targeting numerous therapeutic applications. Functional cationic nanogels containing quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a cross-linker with reducible disulfide moieties (qNG) were prepared by activators generated by electron transfer(More)